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ARH 253-001 Notes on Italy

by: Jennifer Gintovt

ARH 253-001 Notes on Italy ARH 253-002

Jennifer Gintovt
GPA 3.361

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About this Document

Here are my notes on Italy that we covered in lecture with Ms. Robbins.
Survey of Art II
Rachel Robbins
Class Notes
ARH 253-001, Art History, Italy, ARH 253, Art
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 253-002 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Rachel Robbins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art II in Art History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Italy:  For princely patron  Propaganda  Images of court life  Pictoral illusionism  Trompe l’ oeil oculus painted di sotto in su  Unified perspectival spaces  Dates and Places o 1500­1600 o Rome, Florence, Milan and Venice  People o Humanism o Reformation/counter­reformation o Powerful courts o Artist­genius  Becoming an artist is a long, drawn out process  Leonardo di Vinci and Michael Angelo seemingly come out of nowhere  during the Renaissance  Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel  1508­1512  Michael Angelo  o Numerous contributors  Themes of Italy:  Christ, Virgin Mary, saints  Portraiture  Mythology, antiquity  Allegory, poesia Forms:  Balance, harmony, ideal beauty  Venetian color, Mannerist distortion  Raphael  Madonna in the Meadow o 1505­1506  Philosophy (School of Athens) o 1509­1511 o Papal library, allegories of philosophy, theology, poetry, law o Philosophers of antiquity o Semi­circular composition, illusionistic space Leonardo da Vinci  Last Supper o 1495­1498 o Fresco   Added oil paint into mix to try and improve fresco techniques   Renaissance idea of balance, proportion, and beauty  o Mathematical linear perspective o Compositional emphasis on Christ o Unity through pose and movement o Studied emotion o Capturing the observable world  Mona Lisa o 1503­1505 o Woman looking at audience – huge break in convention  o Sfumato­ so blended that its soft and hazy; chiaroscuro (intense light source),  atmospheric perspective  o Wife of wealthy merchant o Convincing likeness o Personality, boldness o Window onto landscape  Madonna of the Rocks o Milan, Italy, 1483 Michael Angelo Buonarroti  David  1501­1504 o Visually pleasing proportion, not mathematical rules o Classical figure with emotion o Anticipation of battle Goliath, not victory o Symbol of Florentine liberty  Sistine Chapel o Fresco in pope’s chapel o Old testament scenes on ceiling, Judgment on wall o Creation, Fall, Redemption narratives o Ignudi, ancestors, prophets, sibyls o Architectural framework o Expressive human body Donato d’ Angelo Bramante  Tempietto   1502(?)  Using ancient architecture correctly for the first time since antiquity  o Central plan chapel (equidistant on the inside) o Classical order o Added dome o Sculptural architecture of volume and masses, solids and voids o Site of St. Peter’s martyrdom Italy continued…  Villa Rotonda o Private villa o Near Venice o Central plan o Dome over crossing  Likely inspired by pantheon o Four facades like temple portals o Pantheon likely model o Wrote architectural treatise  Titian o Venus of Urbino, 1538  Well off  Rotund body shape   Reclined nude   Still not acceptable to paint any nude woman  Hence the name Venus  Oil, Voluptuous body, smoky shadow (sfumato)  Venetian painters love color (colorito), atmosphere, texture  Portrait or mythology  Color organizes composition  Jacopo da Ponntormo o Entombment of Christ, 1525­1528  Mannerist, short lived period after 1520  Self­conscious, not window into world, vogue  Complex, exaggerated, difficult  Unnatural colors, unstable composition  Not about balance, symmetry, clarity­ more about fanciness   Bronzino o Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, 1546  Allegories of love, very complicated  Multiple interpretations   Mannerist, unnatural coloration, contortion, exaggerated    Lascivious, sensuous  Complexity shows artists skill  Paolo Veronese o Christ in the House of Levi, Italy, 1573  Comes out of the inquisition, challenges Veronese’s work, so he changes  the title to make it acceptable    Late Venetian painting  Luxurious event  Classical setting  Invented characters  Renaissance balanced composition  Meant as an allegory Holy Roman Empire  Dates and places: o 1500­1600 o Germany  People: o Martin Luther o Protestant Reformation o Political change   Themes: o Christ, Mary, Saints o Portraits  Forms: o Renaissance illusionism o Surface description o Naturalism  o More focused on education, plays into Protestantism   Hans Holbein the Younger o The French Ambassadors, 1533 o Portraits important o Allegories, distorted skull   Matthias Grüenwald o Isenheim Altarpiece, 1515­1515 o Altarpiece for monastery church with hospital o Gruesome description of wounds o Emphasize suffering o Catholic inclusion of Lamb, Christ’s blood, plague saints  Albrecht Dürer o Fall of Man (Adam and Eve), 1504  Engraving   Animals that stand in as humors of the body  Idealized body images, strange proportions  Interest in renaissance proportion of human body  Combined with European surface description and disguised symbolism  The Netherlands  Dates and places: o 1500­1600 o Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg  People: o Protestants o Merchant class and peasants o Seek independence from Spain  Themes: o Scenes of everyday life with subtle religious content o Practical, peasant life o Fewer altarpieces  Forms: o Naturalism o Surface description o Illusionistic space   Caterina Van Hemessen o Self­portrait, 1548  Female artist  Very modest  Very devout   Self­portrait of woman can be considered prostitution   Pieter Aertsen o Butcher’s Stall, 1551  Biblical scene in background  Party scene in background, oysters as aphrodisiac   Allegories  Scene represents that things aren’t going to last forever  Christian symbolism  Hieronymus Bosch o Garden of Earthly Delights, 1505­1510  Triptych  Adam and Eve, God, biblical scenes  Sin enters the world  Hell  Unusual painting  Possible wedding gift  Alchemy? Judgement?  Quinten Massys o Money­Changer and His Wife, 1514  Distraction of earthly desires   Protestant scene  Moralizing lesson for greedy  Subtle religious symbols  Study of domestic interiors and daily life  Replaces art in churches to instruct faithful  Pieter Bruegel the Elder o Hunters in the Snow, 1565  Hunters returning from the hunt  Ice skating  Fun winter activities   Atmospheric perspective, novel composition  Observation  Relation of man and nature  Simple people  Illusionistic rendering of genre scene from daily life Spain:  Dates and Places: o 1500­1600 o Iberian Peninsula and the Americas  People: o Pious, Catholic o Conservative monarchs o Expanding empire   Themes: o Christ, Mary, Saints o Portraits  Forms: o Selective application of ideas from Italian Renaissance + Mannerism o Exaggeration to support religious content  Exaggerate emotion, colors, meant to hook you and draw you in  El Greco o Burial of Count Orgaz, 1586  Herrera and Toledo o El Escorial, 1563­1584  Palace and monastery  Built for king  Grid plan refers to martyrdom of titular saint  Unornamented style 


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