ARH 253-001 Notes on Italy
ARH 253-001 Notes on Italy ARH 253-002
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 253-002 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Rachel Robbins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art II in Art History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Italy: For princely patron Propaganda Images of court life Pictoral illusionism Trompe l’ oeil oculus painted di sotto in su Unified perspectival spaces Dates and Places o 15001600 o Rome, Florence, Milan and Venice People o Humanism o Reformation/counterreformation o Powerful courts o Artistgenius Becoming an artist is a long, drawn out process Leonardo di Vinci and Michael Angelo seemingly come out of nowhere during the Renaissance Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel 15081512 Michael Angelo o Numerous contributors Themes of Italy: Christ, Virgin Mary, saints Portraiture Mythology, antiquity Allegory, poesia Forms: Balance, harmony, ideal beauty Venetian color, Mannerist distortion Raphael Madonna in the Meadow o 15051506 Philosophy (School of Athens) o 15091511 o Papal library, allegories of philosophy, theology, poetry, law o Philosophers of antiquity o Semicircular composition, illusionistic space Leonardo da Vinci Last Supper o 14951498 o Fresco Added oil paint into mix to try and improve fresco techniques Renaissance idea of balance, proportion, and beauty o Mathematical linear perspective o Compositional emphasis on Christ o Unity through pose and movement o Studied emotion o Capturing the observable world Mona Lisa o 15031505 o Woman looking at audience – huge break in convention o Sfumato so blended that its soft and hazy; chiaroscuro (intense light source), atmospheric perspective o Wife of wealthy merchant o Convincing likeness o Personality, boldness o Window onto landscape Madonna of the Rocks o Milan, Italy, 1483 Michael Angelo Buonarroti David 15011504 o Visually pleasing proportion, not mathematical rules o Classical figure with emotion o Anticipation of battle Goliath, not victory o Symbol of Florentine liberty Sistine Chapel o Fresco in pope’s chapel o Old testament scenes on ceiling, Judgment on wall o Creation, Fall, Redemption narratives o Ignudi, ancestors, prophets, sibyls o Architectural framework o Expressive human body Donato d’ Angelo Bramante Tempietto 1502(?) Using ancient architecture correctly for the first time since antiquity o Central plan chapel (equidistant on the inside) o Classical order o Added dome o Sculptural architecture of volume and masses, solids and voids o Site of St. Peter’s martyrdom Italy continued… Villa Rotonda o Private villa o Near Venice o Central plan o Dome over crossing Likely inspired by pantheon o Four facades like temple portals o Pantheon likely model o Wrote architectural treatise Titian o Venus of Urbino, 1538 Well off Rotund body shape Reclined nude Still not acceptable to paint any nude woman Hence the name Venus Oil, Voluptuous body, smoky shadow (sfumato) Venetian painters love color (colorito), atmosphere, texture Portrait or mythology Color organizes composition Jacopo da Ponntormo o Entombment of Christ, 15251528 Mannerist, short lived period after 1520 Selfconscious, not window into world, vogue Complex, exaggerated, difficult Unnatural colors, unstable composition Not about balance, symmetry, clarity more about fanciness Bronzino o Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, 1546 Allegories of love, very complicated Multiple interpretations Mannerist, unnatural coloration, contortion, exaggerated Lascivious, sensuous Complexity shows artists skill Paolo Veronese o Christ in the House of Levi, Italy, 1573 Comes out of the inquisition, challenges Veronese’s work, so he changes the title to make it acceptable Late Venetian painting Luxurious event Classical setting Invented characters Renaissance balanced composition Meant as an allegory Holy Roman Empire Dates and places: o 15001600 o Germany People: o Martin Luther o Protestant Reformation o Political change Themes: o Christ, Mary, Saints o Portraits Forms: o Renaissance illusionism o Surface description o Naturalism o More focused on education, plays into Protestantism Hans Holbein the Younger o The French Ambassadors, 1533 o Portraits important o Allegories, distorted skull Matthias Grüenwald o Isenheim Altarpiece, 15151515 o Altarpiece for monastery church with hospital o Gruesome description of wounds o Emphasize suffering o Catholic inclusion of Lamb, Christ’s blood, plague saints Albrecht Dürer o Fall of Man (Adam and Eve), 1504 Engraving Animals that stand in as humors of the body Idealized body images, strange proportions Interest in renaissance proportion of human body Combined with European surface description and disguised symbolism The Netherlands Dates and places: o 15001600 o Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg People: o Protestants o Merchant class and peasants o Seek independence from Spain Themes: o Scenes of everyday life with subtle religious content o Practical, peasant life o Fewer altarpieces Forms: o Naturalism o Surface description o Illusionistic space Caterina Van Hemessen o Selfportrait, 1548 Female artist Very modest Very devout Selfportrait of woman can be considered prostitution Pieter Aertsen o Butcher’s Stall, 1551 Biblical scene in background Party scene in background, oysters as aphrodisiac Allegories Scene represents that things aren’t going to last forever Christian symbolism Hieronymus Bosch o Garden of Earthly Delights, 15051510 Triptych Adam and Eve, God, biblical scenes Sin enters the world Hell Unusual painting Possible wedding gift Alchemy? Judgement? Quinten Massys o MoneyChanger and His Wife, 1514 Distraction of earthly desires Protestant scene Moralizing lesson for greedy Subtle religious symbols Study of domestic interiors and daily life Replaces art in churches to instruct faithful Pieter Bruegel the Elder o Hunters in the Snow, 1565 Hunters returning from the hunt Ice skating Fun winter activities Atmospheric perspective, novel composition Observation Relation of man and nature Simple people Illusionistic rendering of genre scene from daily life Spain: Dates and Places: o 15001600 o Iberian Peninsula and the Americas People: o Pious, Catholic o Conservative monarchs o Expanding empire Themes: o Christ, Mary, Saints o Portraits Forms: o Selective application of ideas from Italian Renaissance + Mannerism o Exaggeration to support religious content Exaggerate emotion, colors, meant to hook you and draw you in El Greco o Burial of Count Orgaz, 1586 Herrera and Toledo o El Escorial, 15631584 Palace and monastery Built for king Grid plan refers to martyrdom of titular saint Unornamented style
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