JSIS 201 Week 5 Notes
JSIS 201 Week 5 Notes JSIS 201
Popular in The Making of the 21st Century
Popular in International Studies
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Pollard on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JSIS 201 at University of Washington taught by Bachman, David in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see The Making of the 21st Century in International Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Continuation from Friday’s Lecture • The National Security Act o Reformulated the US government so it could engage in a Cold War struggle o Perception of a growing Soviet threat to America o Worry that this would lead to World War III o Unified the department of the navy and army to create the Department of Defense o Created the CIA, National Security Agency. • Containment o Strategy of containment o Idea of the need to contain the Soviet Union and prevent further expansion o Building alliances and support o 1947 o A view associated with President Truman; the US must maintain a preponderance of power when it comes to the Soviet Union • Peacetime Draft o The US authorized a peacetime draft in the late 1940s. o Increase or maintain the size of military services by the peacetime draft o Minimal amount of people were drafted during this time. • NATO o 1949: the first major peacetime alliance was signed by the United States o Permanent US military forces would be based in Europe o They would provide the defense for Western Europe in the case of a So viet invasion Soviet Actions/Responses • Soviets pull back on Turkey, Iran, and China • Expectations that communists would win elections in France and Italy (low profile) o CIA was authorized to intervene heavily in Soviet elections • Greek insurgents defeated o As the Soviets began to see the postwar developments, they began to take a harder line in eastern Europe. • Dismantlement of "coalition" governments in Poland and Czechoslovakia • Berlin Blockade o The capital of pre-war Germany was in Berlin. o Airlift of essential supplies into Germany so west Berlin could be supplied. • Crash nuclear program • Communist Party victory in Chinese Civil War o Establishing the People's Republic of China Decolonization, Independence and the Emergence of the 3rd World Monday, February 1, 2016 2:52 PM Significance of Decolonization • Growth of International Society o After WWII, much of the world becomes independent which signals the growth of international society o The size of the international community has increased (United Nation s) o Recognized borders and sovereignty as a member of the global community • Creation of weak states in many cases o Lack of education • "post-colonial" world views o Taken over by the elites. o Extremely sensitive to infringement of state sovereignty • Strong support for sovereignty norms • General lack of correlation of ethnicities and national borders (not nation states literally) o Most of the borders were drawn up by the colonial powers: they were artificial o No sense of prior historical claims o The borders that were created were generally preserved • Poor, "underdeveloped" but strongly influenced by ideas of Europe, US, Japan o Foreigners had control of the economy o Ideas of modernity; what a modern state should do, were strongly formed by Western ideas. Why Decolonization? • Weakness of European colonial powers o Economic strength decreased o The British and the French allowed their mandates in the Middle East to become independent during the war • US pressure (sporadic, uneven) • Anti-colonial/ Nationalist movements in developing world (what nation?) o Growing resistance to colonial rule • Weakening of colonial structure by Japanese occupations in Asia • Global norms/ spread of ideas o The idea of independence for nations has become increasingly accepted Paths to Independence • Over the military objections of the colonial power (Indo -China, Algeria, Indonesia, Mozambique, Angola) o There were very few highly -educated Indonesians in Indonesia • Militant but non -violent political movements (India, Pakistan) o Gandhi and the partition for India o Forcing the colonial power to reconsider o By 1950, the British realized they would have to give up many of their colonies • After phased in transition (many British colonies in 40s through 60s) • Abruptly (DR Congo, Israel [Pa lestine]) o Abrupt departure o The Belgium's just pulled out in DR Congo o The British left quickly in Israel o Very few college educated citizens in Congo Independence and the Legacies of Colonialism/Imperialism • Colonies partially integrated into global capital ist economy, but to serve colonial master • Infrastructure developed to facilitate control and trade with colonial power • Economy usually based on trade in agricultural and raw material products. o Very little industry was built • Colonialism sets up models of wh at a "modern" state is and should be o Civil service organizations, military, police forces, civil courts, how it should go about meeting popular needs. o To be a strong, vibrant member of the international community you had to develop strong industry. • Newly independent countries inherited a colonial state structure heavy on control, taxation, and coercion, and light on everything else. o No aspect of human welfare • Transmits idea of "modernity" however incompletely • Creates borders that take on real significance. o When independence comes about, borders become real despite their artificiality. Common beliefs among leaders of new states • Imperialism and colonialism held back their country - served foreigners not the local people o Meet the popular needs and the people 's expectations and will • Foreigners may be gone (not always) but world economy still dominated by former colonial power. Would that economy be fair to the newly independent states? • Industry was one or the basis for modernity and power o Belief that industry was the key to a strong powerful state o Based on force of arms o To retain independence, it was necessary to retain weapons • Prior colonial development did not address issues of poverty and inequality o Europeans had invested in health or education. Expectations Associated with Independence • Without foreign domination, economy would grow and benefit the population o Expectations of high growth and equal distribution • State should be respected and powerful -able to defend its borders and provide public order • Expectation of formal equality of all citizens o Equal under the law • Expectation that state should provide for education, health, development o Came with ideas of independence and modernity • High expectations of rapid improvement in quality of life, social advancement. o You get richer, not in material terms, but in social associations, access to opportunities of entertainment, in ways to get ahead in the system • Those who lead the independence struggle should be rewards with power and/or wealth. o Special privileges o Compensation for bringing about the independence for this country o Patronage systems were sometimes set up Mismatch between Expectations and Capabilities • Limited authority of new leaders, states, parties, police, military • Limited infrastructure o They had ports, some railways, some paved roads but they were limited and they were not following natural economic paths. They were following paths that could get troops around the country quickly or move exports. o Indian independence movement. • Struggles regarding the Musl im population • Creation of West Pakistan (today's Pakistan) • Creation of East Pakistan (today's Bangladesh) • Limited capital - physical, financial, and human o Few people were college educated o Very few people who were innovative which affects who rapidly an ec onomy is going to grow • Limited sense of the nation o Countries divided by religious sentiments, ethnicity o Getting people to pull together during hard times, you couldn't rely on the type of solidarity in an established state to make some sacrifices Consequences of the Mismatch • Political instability o Lots of coups and changes of government o Few had a record of a continuous democratic rule • Limited growth, development o It got worse over time o Much of the 1980s, Africa had limited growth • Sense of betrayal o People were led to expect that the newly independent state would help their needs o Local political leaders sometimes became the target o The social fabric, which was weak to begin with, further unravels. • "Neo-colonialism" • Continued search for developmental br eakthrough o Breakout of the poverty and relative deprivation to try something new o Opens up the attraction of Communist type rule o Opens the possibility of laissez -faire type rule o Desire to get ahead in these systems and to try something new when the old syst em didn't work. • Openings for Cold War interventions o The Cold War in Europe 1947-1975 Wednesday, February 3, 2016 2:58 PM What was the Cold War? • An argument about European borders and Soviet security, especially German borders o If it was just about borders, then the Cold War would not have spread to other parts of the world. • An argument about which political economic system was superior - democratic capitalism or state socialism • An argument about world power, leadership, and domination o Which state or which states would be dominant in world power Could the Cold War have been avoided? • Counterfactual argument; its dangers o It's hard to argue about things that didn't happen o It's based on a logic of carrying out something that didn't happen o What would it have taken for the Soviet Union and the United States to not get involved with the Cold War? • Preventing Germany from becoming powerful o This would have satisfied the Soviet Union but it could not have been done o How heavily do you intervene? o Do you allow for economic recovery? • If this became an ideological context, there's very little way to reach out and overcome these differences. o Perhaps the US could've said we won't interfere with your part of the world if you won't interfere with ours. o What happens whe n there's limited foreign intervention? • Would stability across the borders be enough? Cold War Dynamics • Lofty rhetoric, lots of opportunism • Perception of 0 sum on-going struggle, but was it? o Was this really true? o In 1950, the SU and the People's Republic of China signed an alliance. China becomes more pro-US. How did this affect the balance of power? o Your gain is my loss • Profound linkages between domestic and international politics in the United States/ Soviet Union o Communist scare on the United States --> infringement on civil liberties o The Cold War increases the power of the military • United States/ Soviet Union saw the world through cold war lenses, but the result was often myopia, not clarity o This lens didn't focus well on certain kinds of issues. o Deep involvement with Vietnam • From Europe to the world, but different dynamics in different parts of the world. • Systems of conflict "management" coupled with sporadic "superpower" interventions world wide o Growing attempts to avoid accidents • Nuclear deterrence (mutually assured destruction -MAD) o The US and SU had enough nuclear weapons to survive an attack and still inflict damage o A certain kind of stability pertained there too • Repeated limited efforts by Soviet Union or United States to pursue d étente (reduction/relaxations in tensions, conflict) o The new successors after Stalin's death don't have prominence o Two rounds of détente Other Actors and the Cold War • The Germanies and their motives and concerns o Each saw themselves as the successor state of Nazi Germany o Who should be the appropriate leaders of Germany? o Repeated crises concerning Berlin, East and West Germany, sometimes provoked by east or west sides o Both wanted an united Germany • France and other Europeans o They had their own gains going on o France was seen as the leading state in continental Europe • Neutrals o Nehru o Create a neutralist unit that would try to exempt the rest of the world from this Cold War o But Pakistan made a choice to side with the United States • Those under hegemony o Particularly in Eastern Europe; resented being dominated by Eastern Europe o Riots and uprisings Landmark events in the Cold War • Berlin Blockade ,1948-1949 o The western sector of Berlin is behind the border of Eastern Germany o Cut off the road and rail t raffic to Berlin o US sent in supplies via air o Leads more directly to the creation of the west German state and to the creation of NATO • NATO formation, 1949 o North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Soviet nuclear test, 1949 o US intelligence detected it and then announced it • Korean War 1950-1953 o The event that turns the US on a full war footing and becomes deeply involved in war in Asia o Perceived as an international communist conspiracy o So, the US builds up a large military force • Founding of European Coal and Steel Community, 1951 o France and Germany o This community emerges, encouraging the free flowing of goods • Death of Stalin, 1953 • Protests/uprisings in East Germany, 1953 o East German rioted about the punitive way they were controlled by the Soviets o Lead to the Soviets to give more control to the East Germany regime o Stabilizes the situation in East Germany • Limited détente, 1954-1955 • Neutralization of Austria, 1955 • Founding of Warsaw Treaty Organization, 1955 • Khrushchev denounces Stalin, Protests in Poland, Uprising in Hungary, 1956 o The initial successor of Stalin was pushed aside by Khrushchev o He gives a famous speech and denounces some of the crimes committed during the Stalin era, by Stalin • 20 years of terror in the Soviet system • Soviet ICBM, Sputnik, 1957 o Soviet launched a missile o Gave rise to a big fear in the United States, that they had fallen behind in the world's space race o This heightened a sense of competition • Treaty of Rome - EEC, 1957-1958 • Confrontations over Berlin, 1958 -1961 o West and East Germany weren't all that well divided (people could cross over the border) o East Germany was losing a significant portion of their population, especially the younger generation • Another attempt at détente, 1958 -1960 o The Soviets knew they weren' t producing ICBMs • Building of Berlin Wall 1961 (Cold War in Europe stabilizes) o There would not be periods of particularly high tension in Western Europe o It appeared that the borders were essentially fixed • Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 • Limited Détente, 1963-1966 (Limited Test ban Treaty, 1963, Non -proliferation Treaty 1969) • France removes itself from NATO command 1966 • Soviet Union suppression of reform movement in Czechoslovakia, 1968 • West German Ostpolitik, 1968 -1973 • US-Soviet Détente, 1969-1975 o SALT treaty, ABM treaty (both 1972) • "European Settlement" - the Helsinki Final Act (1975) o Basket 1: Acceptance of Borders, peaceful dispute resolution o Basket 2: Trade and scientific and technical cooperation o Basket 3: Human Rights China, the Korean War and the Vietnam Wars Friday, February 5, 2016 3:15 PM Why the Power of Communism in Asia? • Focus on downtrodden, poor, anti -imperialist
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