Energy and the Environment
Energy and the Environment
Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Environmental Studies
This 28 page Reader was uploaded by Nikki Chan on Wednesday March 12, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 181 views.
Reviews for Energy and the Environment
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/12/14
I Impacts Ice amp Temp ice melt the loss of glaciers are the quotcanaries in the coal minequot for the Earths climate system ski resorts put ice blankets on glaciers to stop the glacier retreats Antarctic ice cores reveal past CO2 84 temps global temps fluctuate in a pattern that is closely associated with the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere extreme weather from l9lO20lO more hot temps increase in nat disasters II Energy balance including the greenhouse effect A Greenhouse effect de ned major cooling system be wind does not blow that much experiment 2 greenhouses one had glass and the other had rock salt does not absorb infrared radiation the earth is a greenhouse planet Mars run away glaciation no way of getting CO2 into the atmosphere Venus run away greenhouse cant get CO2 out of atmosphere Earth combo of solar irradiance and greenhouse effect determines the mean surface temps of mars earth and venus without greenhouse effect earth would be 9 degrees C l896 Science Paper asked quotis the mean temp of the ground in any way influenced by the presence of heat absorbing gases in the atmospherequot prof said yes there is lots of data that supports this on avg the earths surface receives more heat from the atmosphere 82 clouds than it does directly from the sun This warming of the earths surface from the atmosphere 82 clouds is the greenhouse effect the thermal infrared EMR from the atmosphere 82 clouds is by far the earths surface than is the solar energy at shorter wavelengths ie sunshine 55 of green house gases 3 is from CO2 B Lubchenco Graduation Address UCSB June 16 2013 former administrator of N OAA uses and creates knowledge communication learn how to communicate your knowledge weather satellites provide 90 of data that goes into our weather forecasts Gulf Oil Spill vice president understood everything she said wen talking about gulf oil spill recovery tasks prof quotcongress makes decisions but dont know what they are doing important to communicate science as well as listen and speak quot C The Carbon Cycle amp CO2 methane power to absorb infrared radiation 23 times more than CO2 all gases are increasing in amount be of industrial rev cycle coal clouds photosynthesis decay of soil mushrooms CO2 in atmosphere from respiring CO2 out of atmosphere from photosynthesis lid in ocean photosynthesis takes CO2 out of atmosphere exchanges btwn air 82 ocean after taking out oxidizing resource combustion puts CO2 in atmosphere land use changes puts CO2 in atmosphere unpaired 1 History of CO2 atmospheric concentration Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii Keeling Curve extrema along the maximum side seasonal variations max expiration in fall and decay min sucking up CO2 to operate photosgnthesis red line south pole less vegetation more ocean prot quotwont stop increasing angtime soonquot lVlclltibben39s upper limit U988 gt50ppm as of llag ZOI3 400 ppm from ice cores sea level has dropped 20 m lower 2 CO2 stabilization to raise the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere by one part per million ppm add 77giga tonnes of CO2 l2l giga tonnes of carbon giga lbillions tonnes CO2 ltonne LOOO kilograms metric ton today global per capita emissions are about 4tCO2qr per individual 20 giga tonnes co2 go in annuallg 82 5 giga tonnes 002 go out inexplicably coupled with politics and economics at quotstabilizationquot allowed emissions are about one third of today39s O giga tonnes 002 go in annuallg ltrom FF 0 added 82 O go out from ocean 82 land biosphere stabilization at double the pre industrial concentration Know these numbers l HI 075 l8 4 2 Per capita electricity consumption 2200 kWhpy 3 Per capita C02 eq production 6 or 5 tonnes lCO2eqpg Molecular weights 3 I2 302 44 02 82 CO2C 44l2 37 Animation shows signi cance of 4 in SC eqn Radiation Balance the essential basis of climate Visible Solar Energy Input Reflected Light llalphaSC Infrared Energy Output l4Cr TA4 90 Mlmisc lalphaSC 4Cr lTA4 90 Incoming Visible Light to Earth 1 Simple Earth39s energy balance with no greenhouse effect pIII3 5 90 Mlmisc lalphaSC 4Cr llA4 A Inputs 90 lllmisc rate of input of energg to earth 1 Solar electromagnetic radiation SC incoming rate of solar energg S lgt39OWmA2 C cross section that earth presents to the sun m2 2 Tides human contribution amp geothermal energy lllmisc other sources besides incoming sunlight lex tides geothermal energg heat dissipation om human activities lmostlg Fl 82 nuclear unit is W lllmisc Dltides Dlhuman Dlgeothermal 3 W l6 W 30 W 49 W lonlg thing changing is humans in l9 O humans were 8 W0 B Outputs lalphaSC 4Cr lTA4 rate of output of energg om earth 1 Re ectivity albedo gets balanced bg albedo amount of energg that gets re ected lalphaSC quotquotquot alpha albedoquotquotquot alpha or albedo the traction 30 alpha SC incoming solar energg re ected back 2 Infrared electromagnetic radiation 4Cr lTA4 quotquotquot r gamma 4Cr lTA4 energg emitted r gamma unit is W lmA2 x K T temperature K C Env Signi cance particulates nd their wag into the atmosphere and hang around gt scattering 82 increasing albedo causes temp to drop takes 2 gears to get back to normal temps increasing albedo it root is painted white gt less air conditioning gt less energg used and less moneg spent II Summary of energy balance w no greenhouse Dll38 the backbone of the climate agstem simpli ed global energg balance lno greenhouse gases 90 Mlmisc lalphaSC 4Cr lTA4 R 4CrlTA4 llAlphaSC M delta TT l 4 delta RR it one side goes up in eqn other side must go up albedo and temp change evergthing else on right side is a constant lVlcKag questions lots of power lenergg om nuclear ssion wont this contrib to global warming be of all the extra energg being released into the env lloKag anewer gee human prod wudjuet show up as a contributor to global climate change A Earth39s temp as Function waste heat that must be radiated away 700 nuclear power plants B Can global warming occur wo the greenhouse effect Germany is moving up in renewable energy coal is still on top though not taking into account the external cost going from ff base to a renewable one Examples of external costs die to the burning of coal in London and Beijing London Sulfurous Smog Episode Dec 5 to 9 952 positive feedback loop more reflected sunlight stronger temp inversion cooler ground temp darker days more fuel burning mo pollution worse fog China Air pollution in china at off chart levels smog from coal and automobiles set up big tents that filtrate the air so kids can plan inside during smog episodes tents use coal to pump filtration I Thermodynamics and three de nitions of energy Work Force x Distance W FXD Thermodynamics began as the scientific basis of how to turn HEAT energy into mechanical WORK scientific foundation of how we harness energy and the basis of the Wealth of Nations A First law and Perpetual motion machines energy is conserved not produced or destroyed consumption conversion machine that doesn39t believe in the first law summary report to break the first law of thermodynamics get more energy out of the system then is internally in the system machines are impossible but their allure has been attractive over the years What is Villard39s Wheel B Energy Units energy is the capacity to do work or to move an object against a resisting force consider a 4 oz apple on a l meter table lgravitational potential energy llgh apple 4 oz Ol kg lVl Olkg g lO ms2 h l meter Gravitational potential energy Mgh ljoule 3 basic unit of Work N eutons x meters lifting an apple by one meter ljoule calorie amount needed to heat I gram of water I degree celsius I calorie 4I39joules C Kevin amount of heat it takes to heat I kelvin quotquotquotPower Energg Time J oule Second lAattquotquotquot Remember power rate of doing work associated with time unit is watt W Hybrid Energg Unit Energg Power x Time energy in watts time in seconds or hours ex kilowatthour IO 3 watts IO 3 J s IO 3 J X 3600 36 x IO joules 36 MegaJouIes British thermal unit Btu IO55J39oules amount of heat needed to heat I lb of water bg I degree Fahrenheit quotquotquotknow name 82 number going to convertquotquot kilo k IOA3 I thousand mega M IOA6 I million giga G IOA9 I billion terra T IOAI2 I trillion peta D IOAI5 I tera exa E IOAI8 total energg consumption of a countrg zeta Z IOAZI annual global energg consumption Yotta Y IOA24 requires to heat all the water on the Earth bg one degree C Signi cance of Mt Everest and the a how many kilowatthours would it take to big a bucket of water up to Mt Everest one quarter kwh kwh is a huge number D Types of Energy Where does Energg Come From below ground coal oil gas geothermal uranium and above the ground sun wind water biomass oil and gas are benefactors of fracking in the US below resources finite and dirt energg needed to recover energg above resources in nite and clean no energg needed to make the sun shine volume limited below ground rate limited above ground onlg so much that comes at a time E Net Energy Analysis annual solar energg at the earths surface volume limited annual energg consumption of the World is verg small net energg considerations it takes energg to get energg KNOW THIS LIST energg used to support the following must be considered extraction processing construction speed of implementation dgnamic restoration decommissioning waste disposal II Examples of mechanical energy PE KE Mgh 12MVquot2 pg VI327 DE lVlgI l mass gravitg height Mechanical DE KE A Pile Driver problem 45a B Helms Hydro Project pp 11128 amp the electricity load curve 9095 eflioieni so builf a loi oi dams uiiliig load curve shows fhe arnouni of eleoirioilg ousforners use over fhe course of lime base load reserve for big planis like nuclear and coal inierrnediafe load and peak load when evergone is using lols of eleofrioiig gas moves wafer up and down lo dill reseruiors C Rivers of Patagonia Chile I55 I Commentary on the climate debate skepticism doubt and objection are a good practice in science in the climate debate there is uncertainty However such uncertainty generally lies within the bounds of how much climate change will negatively affect human society not whether or not it will this is where probabilities and ranges have an important role to play II CO2 equivalent lknow slide on GM what does C0l2eq mean lknow for exam problem too III Geoengineering will not be on the exam A Definition 82 history intentional continental or global scale manipulation of the env to offset global climate change 8 Processes 82 technologies global economy is based on making C02from fossil carbon emissions growth rate since 2000 was greater than for the most fossil fuel intensive of the DOC emissions scenarios developed in the late l900s looking at future trends none of the trends show a decrease in C02 Geoengineering solutions to 00 pump 002 into the bottom of the ocean shoot aerosols to stratosphere place giant reflectors in orbit Global Scale EcoEngineering orbit billions of aluminized hydrogen balloons into the stratosphere stratosphere instead of the bc it will stay there no wind create a sunlight reflecting layer of articles deliberately layer atmosphere w a layer of soot using airplanes orbit 50000 39 mile square mirrors to deflect the suns rays ltoday looking at orbiting one big mirror 0 Summary 00 abatement mitigation tech incoming solar energy gt decrease or increase incident solar radiation gtsurface cloud seeding stratospheric aerosols engineered particles The Greenhouse gas effect gtreduce CO2 emissions gt switch energy sources improve efficiency C02 capture 82 storage fossil carbon gt remove CO from the air gt iglcgtgic schemes or chemical schemes gt 009 with biomassiron fertilization reforestation the sensibility of these various schemes can be visualized in riskcost space mirrors in space high risk and high cost reduce GHG emissions low risk and low cost high risk and low cost sulfur particles in the stratosphere engineered particles in the stratosphere iron fertilization high cost and low risk biomass w 009 electrochemical weathering air capture solvent regeneration cost v 002 graph ppl spend 90 of their time in buildings Air extraction of CO2 emissions llaOl l CO2 gt lla2COgt fhe oheapesf wag fo remove CO2 from fhe air is fo oombusf appropriafelg haruesfed biomass and oapfure and sfore fhe CO2 Black lron wood gou ouf if wifh a chain saw and fhe wood has sparks be fhe densifg is so high have iron wood foresfs gou ouf wood and dump if in fhe ooean Dinafubo uolanio ehill blooked fhe sun and chilled fhe world fhanks fo fhe amplifging effeof of fhe wafer vapor Railroad Crossfies orossfies could have a major warming impaof depending on fhe maferial used swifohing from oonorefe fo wood human aofions fhaf ehange olimafe gt olimafe sgsfem gt elimafe impaof on human welfare mifigafion geoengineering adapfafion or suffering 0 Key questions I Methane Gas CH4 23 more times potent than 002 A Shale gas amp hydrot racking sandstone has tight sand gas if take gas out then you have oil coal bed methane political issues around getting methane out of coal bed graph of earthquakes of earthquakes has increased over time since l970 fracking i p drill underground until you hit the water table pour cement to seal it from ground water bad then drill horizontally through shale for a mile i send a perforating gun and explodes to create cracks into the shale p pull gun out pour water down lsand chemicals etc lbad drilling fluids could affect other water tables water gets pushed out sometimes gets dumped in old wells or underground natural gas flows into the pipe B Methane hydrates flammable dry ice II Coal the deadliest form of energy if you cant dig it you cant burn it greatly impact the cost of electricity if we use coal energy cost internal cost external cost US has a lot of coal exports to china A Coal Mining largest surface mine in north america Black Thunder Basin Coal Mine shipment of coal trains run 247 B ns t es nite me C China39s coal res 7080 of energy is based on coal over lO0000 miners increased energy over the years sunken coal fires menace land and climate very deep hard to put out CO2 produced is the same amount as 302 produced by vehicles in Am l coal by wire Nigeria and North Dakota wants oil aring burning methane to make oil so bright that ppl no longer had darkness 1 Overall view of FF A A possible future scenario Carbon39s Possible Future we are so connected with FF that we are not going to give it up tm B FF resource base units of fuels is Gbbl lgiga blue barrels oFoil39onebTllion barrels big base C History of world oil production how long could world oil prod continue at this 7 growth Table 7 in the book understand what the table means use equation P lOOk columns represent how much oil shale there is D Doubling Time DT70P at 7 growth oil consumption will double every lO years we need to tind more oil it we are to continue to consume oil at 7 per year total recoverable size of the resource n current rate of consumption the change in growth rate of consumption change from year to year if K 0 than amount of oil per year does not change EET Zl lfr l KgtO EET exponential expiration time time that the resource is exhausted dont memorize know what each symbol means E patterns of growth WWY W mm win scazcrw s G AT GET x at wcGN arr p9 B Q35 wk smuaw 5 E axuxwsu4gtn quot L fE 5 x quotl lgti EET nHE F How long will a resource last quotat present extractionquot the resource will last lso many years this means zero growth in resource production thus k O Bartlett39s World Full of Oil the volume of petroleum in the earth cannot be larger than the volume of the earth the volume of earth is 68l x lOA2l barrels which would last For 4lxlOAll yrs if the l97O rate continues earth Full of oil would last 342 years point cant have sustained exponential growth 6 External Cost Ex container ships off loading containers thatcame from the harbor release diesel in the air san pedro and long beach most ppl have lung cancer II Canada39s Tar Sands and the Key Stone Pipeline A Resource size a from l96O to 200lamount of oil has39increased many plants destroyed by natural occurrences V i oil plants in gulf of Mexico bc this is where it is easy to refine the oil it is also known as hurricane alleg quotquotquotFor Midterm know the types of coal sulfur content heat content amp geography in americaquotquotquot quotquotquotlow to study for the midterm recipe online I Fuel Cells know what it ie not how it worke an electrochemical cell that converts fuel into an electrical current h2o 82 heat II UCB39s Bloom Box caueed lote of commotion in the bueineee eector A Video inexpeneive clean with no emieeione one dag replace power plants and grid eo evergone hae their own electricitg inetead of creating oxggen created one that kept oxggen in Bloom ie the moet expensive to make their product price ie cut in half to bug them walmart google fedex ebag have all bought them can run on mang eourcee of fuel natural gas eolar B Discussion with David McHaIe Energy Manager amp Jordan Sager UCSB LEED Jordan Sager 4 million dollare a month for electricitg on campue half the coet ae it would normallg coet did a partnership with bloom box teeting one on campue Fact rieing water and energg coet etate law eage large CA utilitiee have to provide 33 renewable energg bg 2020 A832 aeeemblg bill 2002 global warming eolutione act cap and trade large entitiee etarted thie gear had to etart paging for carbon and taking them with other large entitiee power plant in SoCal ehut down eo we had to meet demand drought lake chchuma didnt have ae much water climate change and Gl lGe reduce ghge emieeione back to 2000 levels bg 20l4 climate neutral bg 2025 David overeeee energg management initiativee in campue electrical transmission from eo cal edieon tranemit it through transmission linee on the mtn eidee receive 66000 volts on campus eo cal edieon ueed to own our energg egetem but now we own it go it eavee ue moneg dietribution egetem eelf healing during a fault it will fix iteelf electricitg and natural gas uee electricitg for air conditioning ventilation lighting interior and exterior plug loade lcomputere nat gae for epace heating water heating cooking water domeetic ueee irrigation cooling lop O researoh buildings on campus fakes up aboul 60 of eleolrioiig used Siraiegg l energg and wafer eflioienog in new buildings LEED gold or be er 20 less energg lhan building code required LED lighls in dorms insulaied windows in dorms low flow shower heads new healing sgsiemz new boilers for healing wafer Siraiegg 2 energg upgrades 23 million per gear on energg eflioienog projeols evaluaie on relurn invesimeni as well as env impaoi reduolion Siraiegg 3 subsliluiion swiiohing sources of energg bloom box serves iv up and running for aboui a gear and a half now issue is oosi irg lo oapiure nai gas and serve ii info a bloom box midterm bring scantron writing portion ll in the black matching and multiple choice I Pielke Observation when theres s conflict btwn policies that promote economic growth and policies restricting co2 economic growth wins every time if we had a rate that was closer to 62ppm we wouldnt be using FF IP00 data on 00 concentration from l0000 years ago to now units radiative forcings ppm 3 truths of climate change l co2 and other trace GHG are rapidly in increasing in the atmosphere as a direct result of human acitvitg 2 These gases absorb the earths waste heat in the form of infrared 3 t I my 2 ECO0MC 10 V3 quot P sggigg ELL vat I zesE2JES l P S Q CQlSW EXT COST lgtNE LETS Q quotPi 39l7amp SlNPCGI 3 qzgswsce cues C Q c5l emu uJ 4 flfugvecma WE 0L quot 2 wag mu QESQUE CES mx iZ 1 lt39 E WES W mm as you move down the cost axis there are deposits that are uneconomic to recover at present prices ex too deep not sufficiently high grade or too difficult to process as you move right we encounter deposits that are less welldefined or those that are surmised to exist ex geologic structures which haven39t been mapped but whose features are known to be similar to those of well explored formations that are known to contain resources Mckelveg Box the entire amount of resource that exists within the Earth on a 2 dimentional plot 3 Components of the Energy Problem l Carbon Climate Change 2Energy Poverty 3 Security of energy supply Han Rosling39s key Factors to help reduce pop growth in poor countries l Children must survive 2 Many children not needed for work 3 Increased education and integration in the labor force for women 4 access to family planning Shift is happening video shift in coal Coal Crash declining bc of tracking and natural gas Africa39s turn at the oil pump consumption in Africa is expected to grow Faster then any other region in the world mining sand C special sand using in tracking open pores of rock put sand in to keep crack open to get gas 8 oil out I Graph of Human Development Index HDI know them lsitting comfortably above 90 HUI l moving towards plateau quickly and near g39I3939I39p39I U39FE39l39land a half million ppl dont have electricity Norway gets a lot of its energy from hydropower Canada is colder so uses a lot too industrialized countries are on a plateau 092 HDI North Africa and West Asia are near 0 HDI Components l longevity 2 educational attainment 3 standard of living pop size and age distrib graph EU vs North Africa and West Asia in l950 2000 and 2050 notch in l950 EU ages 3034 world war 2 r A Sustainability 8 what are the external costs of energy maul gmk k1tmaL mm 17 moms Anus 3 J7 ech5u5 NV C Ex of sources of external costs l assault on antiquity 2 London39s famous smog episode of l952 3 ports of LA and Long Beach the effects of a nation39s decisions on others is referred by economists as externalities external cost swamp the cost we actually pay for electricity Weeks 35 34 How many EW are there in a billion TW EW l0Al8 Tw l0Al2 ll0A9 one billion l0A2l watts l0A2ll0Al8 03 There are IOOO Elli in a billion TW 3 3 How many kwhours are there in 7200 E3 change evergthing to J and then divide l KW 36 X lOA6J39OUlQ9 7200 EJ 7200 x l0Al8 J 72 X l0A2l Joules 72XlOA2l J 36 X lOA6JOUlQQ 2 x lOAl5 J 37 At the center of earths equator max solar radiation is 1370 wm2 if you can harness all the energy how many hours do you need to be the same as you burned one barrel of oil 61 63 6 GJ 6 X 09 J 370 X 3600 493 X 06 J in one hour machine can produce this 6 x 09 J 493 X 06 J about 236 X 03 hours 39 how many KWhours does it take to carry a bucket of H20 to the top of Mt Everest Mass of bucket 10kg force of gravity 10 msecquot2 height 8000 m E mass X gravitg X height l0lltg X 0 msecA2 X 8000 m 8 X 05 lltgmA2secA2 8 x lOA5 J l Kwhr 36 X 06 J 8 X 05 J 36 X 06 J 0222 kwhrs to take the bucket to the top of Mt Everest 44 kinetic energy and potential energy No 44 water balloon were fall from the top of the Bren Hall 50 m how fast would 39 ilzsaveling the instant before it strikes the student below In 2 potential kinetic llst law of thermodynamics 50 m 0 S E mgh potential l kg X 0 msecA2 X 50 m 500 J E l 2 miA2 kinetic l2X l X KA2 500 J v square root of 000 3l6 m sec SC incoming rate of solar energy 9 l370l0mA2 C cross section that earth presents to the sun mA2 46 The earths radius is 6400 km calculate the amount of solar energy in Z3 that the earth intercepts in one year S lgt70WmA2 0pierA23l46400 X l0A3m2 29 X l0Al4 mA2 S0 370 WmA2 X 29 X l0Al4 m2 77 X l0Al7 W JS in one gear 77 X l0Al7 W J9 X 3600 secs X 24hours X 365 dags 56 X 024 J 5600 ZJ 50 Assume the sensitivity relation btwn the earths avg temp amp the amount of reradiated heat is AT I A 2 E T l a the amount of heat the earth reradiated increases by 2 what is the corresponding increase in temp delta R R 2 delta T T l 4 X 02 05 b assume the initial temp is 288k what is the temp change in degrees k T 288K delta T T X 05 288K X 05 l44K c if the albedo increased to 40 what is the effect on temp 90 lVlmisc albedoSC 4CrTA4 T decreasing increasing decreasing Important s pre xes of energg lg mg U l kw 56 X 06 J GWD 002 l GWD CH4 2324 GWD N20 298 GWD CFO and HCFC thousands Important Formulas potential energg E mgh kinetic energg E l2mA2 fhcrmoclinc cncrgg E MOdclaT C speci c hcaf of wafer E D x T W F x D Earfh cncrgg balance 80 Mmi9c 290 4CrTA4 gt82ppm ourrenl 450 ppm iargei lo avoid olimale eeneiiiviig of 2 degrees oeleiue CO2 levels alreadg exoeed ihoee ihai would provide long ierm eafelg goal should be 350ppm lalreadg paeeed do noi wanl a repeal of Aniaroiioa paei no more ioe FOCUS ON DEOREASING AMOUNT NOT AVOIDING A FUTURE AMOUNT donl look for eiabilizalion oonoeniraiion be gou have lo oaloulaie how much warmer ihe earih will be ai ihai lemp focus on ioial oarbon emieeione more emphasis on how much polluiion ineiead of when if geie emi ed oap on emieeione lakes a long lime for The olimaie lo recover from excessive warmingquotquotquot move iargel emissions from a Tulure largei number To a number ihai hae alreadg been eurpaeeed ehangee focus from how much warmer earih will be when we do reaoh ihai number To focusing on deoreaeing emieeione and avoiding exeeee rieing lempe Talee eenee ihai we have lime uniil we have lo change The eludiee done in This ariiole Tooue on The idea of having a cap on ioial GHQ emieeione Siudiee l proved ihai even if emieeione were oui down a er reaohing 550ppm iempe wud ooniinue To increase for ai leael a oeniurg more experimeni done ai 20l2 levele l400ppml 205O levele l585ppml and 2lOO levele llOOOppm Siraiegiee To avoid exoeee lemp rieing l world would have To limii GHQ emieeione lo 4OO gigaionnee of C in order io eiand a 75 chance of avoiding a iemp increase of more ihan 2 degree Celeiue hard be meihane and nilroue oxide alreadg produoe li le leee ihen half of C emieeione leaving li le room for CO2 emissions allowed 2 limii all CO2 emieeione lo l irillion lone of carbon ioial To avoid 2 degreee C exoeee inoreaee half of ihe irillion ie alreadg in The aimoephere ourrenilg emii 9 billion lone a gear and rieing Therefore oaloulaied lhal we onlg have 4O more geare before we need To elop ueing oarbon emieeion John Bowers Founder Living without Electricity l6 of the world does not have electricitg ppl without electricitg use kerosene which is verg bad for health re danger eges and lung health kerosene is also verg expensive Solution MultiPurpose Solar Powered Light high et ciencg solar cell high efliciencg LED low cost one rechargeable batterg high performance long life water resistant made in China and lndia 1 Energy Balance including the greenhouse effect 1 Feedback loops positive self enhancing negative restoring methane hgdrates water in the ocean and air warm up trap mh in ice cages methane is more potent mass bg mass compared to 002 l Positive impacts 2 Examples pattern in climate feedback loops compares temp C02 and methane generallg match each other when lines go up having a positive feedback going down negative feedback graph of temp in the N Hemisphere from 0002 B impacts a pH scale H39I39 l Acidi cation of the oceans PH quot l 03 39quot 10 lm pl l measure of aciditg using a logarithmic scale 0 verg acidic acid and 4 is not base b Status 82 current projections increased aciditg in the oceanmajor concern be changes ecosgstem amplifies some orgs 82 kills others 0 decline 30 increasein aciditg in the ocean 2l00 oceans will decrease from 82 to 78 50 increase in aciditg anoxic waters a dead ocean 2 Sea Level Rise 3 mechanisms to increase sea level I thermal expansion 60 increase in the ocean is due to heat getting into the ocean and expanding water as heat transfers cold expands and pushes out the top part this is primarilg what is happening todag 2 Runoff ice melt ice gone but water level is the same in a glass of ice water when ice melts can cause in increase in sea level and as a result major floods 3 Mechanical 3 Extreme weather monetarg damage from hurricanes greatlg increased not adjusted for inflation not verg mang categorg 4 82 5 storms tornadoes not verg mang strong to violent tornadoes 9502006 0 Approaching C02 stabilization at stabilization allowed emissions are about one third of todags at double the pre industrial concentration out future is going to be different from our past 0 Removal times for greenhouse gases centuries G Greenhouse Warming Potential quotGlAPquot 82 GHG Lifetimes lpg lll52 Table l calculation of the increase in greenhouse effect caused bg the release of a kilogram of the gas relative to that produced bg an equivalent amount of CO2 look at colorful chart on ppt for GHQ lifetimes CFCs have reallg high lifetimes grs and global warming potential other gases do make an effect on global warming GHQ a gas in a atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation lex water vapor CO2 methane nitrous oxide ozone GlUp a general quantification of a given greenhouse gas effect on global warming as compared to CO2 CH4 GlUp 28 gt for everg l kg of CH4 emitted to the atmosphere there is a warming effect equivalent to 28 kg of CO2 since different GhG degrade at certain rates gou have to define the time scales CH4 O0 gears II Results 8 summary energy balance changes A Effective radiative forcings I70ZOOO lpp lll5O 82 5556 002 most important GHQ 926 source Ff burning RF 35 WmA2 Aerosols lndirect effect sulfate particles scatter solar radiation back to space increasing albedo cooling effect I Greenhouse effect vs the aerosol effect globallg avg combined land and ocean surface temp increasing coal causes this competition 2 wrongs make a right makes particles and sulfur look at ppt slide Gl lG effect sun radiation heats earth earth radiates some of it back lalbedo 2 History of CO2 in the atmosphere 3 Radiative forcing for the climate system Radiative forcing RF the difference of radiative energg received bg the earth and energg radiated back to space llUmA2 positive RF warming negative RF cooling effect 002 is a RF agent small changes in earths energg balance global mean radiative forcings of the climate sgstem for the gear ZOOO putting more energg into the atmosphere as our pop and time moves forward bottom units is level of scientific understanding radiative forcing from total anthropogenic RF needs to come down TOO MUCH B quotAquot transition scenario lp lll 3976 A means alternate get tropospheric ozone down easier than getting CO2 down get black carbon down to 0 moving towards wind energg conservation of energg and solar cells alternate solution conservation efficiencg and renewable energg Exergy organized energy 1 Ex of thermal energy heat MCdeltaT E Joule M maee of water kg 0 epecific heat of water 4186 x 08 J kg quot K delta T temp difference K underetand ecientific notation and unite A The Joule experiment Mechanical Equivalent of Heat MEH meaeuring the mechanical equivalent of heat in which the quotwork of the falling weight ie converted into the quotheatquot of agitation in the water converting mechanical equivalent of heat energg into heat energg paddle epinning paddle ie ME and heat from paddle ie heat energg mechanical equivalent of heat VlEl l C epecific heat 4186 J given on a teet l calorie epecific heat amount of heat per unit mace required to raiee the temp of the mace bg l degree kelvin or Celeiue B Solar Energy Enhanced Hydroelectric Plants Thermoclines converting gravitational potential energg to kinetic energg hoover dam to lake mead thermocline hot water on top of lake and cold water on the bottom delta T energg in the temperature difference btwn 2 zonee of water no temp difference no heat during winter chance of getting heat ie little eolar energg enhanced hgdroelectric plante normal hgdroelectric plant eqn energg ueed to turn turbine eolar enhanced hgdroelectric plant eqn add change in temp to eqn l eqn l and 2 are on page ll8 thermal equivalent gravitational head quothth hoover dam hae a temp difference of 5 degrees K during the eummer II Power P E T 35 time rate of change in energg E CT kilowatthoure A Numerical Power Scale l W laptop I kw toaeter l MW plane I GW nuclear reactor l W electricitg worldwide B Sample Probs eag it takee 5 mine 800 eeceto fill a 20 gallon car fuel tank w gaeoline l gal gaeoline Ol8GJ How much power flowe thru gour hande ae gou fill the 20 gallon tank DET energg in a 20 gal tank 01 GJ gal x 20 gal E 26GJ D26 GJ800 eec 087 x 07 J eec 87 XOA6 Jeec 87 MW prob 37 Vl4 power per equare meter 870 Wm2 Area m2 E in barrel of oil 6 GJ D l87O Wm2 x m2 870 W T ED 6 GJ 370 W 6 x IOAQ J 37 x OAS Jeeo 45 x IOA6 eeo x I hr 36 x OAS eeo 25 x 03 hr T 250 hrs C Signi cance of Ragone plots ragone plofez eeparaiion biwn power and energg ploi of power ve energg pg ll80 Energg Wh range and power W aooeleraiion Gas ie high on fhe energg eoale and energg eoale applioaiionz need an engine fhai ie high powered and lighi weighi range go for high epeoi o energg
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'