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Module 4 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Module 4 Notes SPED 7007

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These are the notes for week four of class. They cover chapter four of our textbooks and the two required articles. It also contains important information from the two class videos.
Positive Behavior
Dr. Todd Haydon
Class Notes
Measuring Behavior in the School: Rules, Praise, and Ignoring Behaviors
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Module  4  Notes   Measuring  Behavior  in  the  School   Written  by:  Krista  Anstead   January  2016     Learning  Outcomes:   1.   Define  Behavior                           o   Dimensions  of  Behavior   2.   The  Steps  of  the  Measurement  Process                           o   Step  1:  Determine  What  to  Monitor                           o   Step  2:  Determine  the  Simplest  Way  to  Collect  Data                           o   Step  3:  Monitor  Behavior  in  a  Consistent  Manner                           o   Step  4:  Use  Data  to  Evaluate  and  Make  Decisions  Behavior  Monitoring  Methods   o   Event-­‐Based  Recording                           o   Time-­‐Based  Recording       Readings/References:   Haydon,  T.,  Borders,  C.,  Embury,  D.,  &  Clarke,  L.  (2009).  Using  effective  instructional  delivery  as     a  class  wide  management  tool.  Beyond  Behavior,  18(2),  12-­‐17.   Madsen,  C.,  Becker,  C.,  &  Thomas,  D.  Rules,  praise,  and  ignoring:  Elements  of  elementary     classroom  control.  Journal  of  Applied  Behavior  Analysis,  1(2),  139-­‐150.   Scott,  T.,  &  Anderson,  C.  (2012).  Overview  of  a  functional  approach  to  intervention.  In     Managing  Classroom  Behavior  Using  Positive  Behavior  Supports.  Boston:  Pearson.     Acronyms:   •   Effective  instruction  =  EI   •   Opportunities  to  Respond  =  OTR   •   Active  Response  =  AR   •   Event-­‐based  recording  =  EBR   •   Time-­‐based  recording=  TBR     Chapter  4  Notes:   Operational  definitions  of  behavior     •   Operational  definitions  must  be  observable  and  measurable   •   Should  be  developed  in  consideration  of  the  most  important  features  of  the  behavior     6  dimensions  by  which  behaviors  are  defined     •   Topography  and  locus  should  be  part  of  any  definition  of  behavior   •   Topography  (what  did  it  look  like)   o    Observational  properties   o   most  important  part  of  definition   o   describes  exactly  how  you  know  a  behavior  occurred   •   locus  (when  and  where  did  it  happen)   o   provides  context  for  behavior     •   frequency  (how  many  were  there)   o   reveals  how  often  a  behavior  occurs  or  how  many  occurrences  were  observed   •   duration  (how  long  did  it  last)   o   can  measure  total  amount  of  time  engaged  in  behavior   o   can  measure  average  duration  of  behavior   o   can  use  variation  of  duration  recording  (latency)   •   latency  (how  long  before  it  happened)   o   time  between  antecedent  and  behavior   o   important  for  monitoring  whether  there  is  change  in  response  time   •   intensity  (how  hard  was  it)   o   measure  of  the  force  with  which  a  behavior  is  displayed     Generic  set  of  steps  for  developing  a  behavior  monitoring  program     •   step  1:  determine  what  to  monitor   o   identify  observed  problems,  important  questions,  and  determine  what  you  need   to  know   •   step  2:  determine  the  simplest  way  to  collect  data   o   find  the  simplest  way  to  collect  data,  practice  the  data  collection  mentioned,  and   teach  the  method  to  other  observers   •   step  3:  monitor  behavior  in  a  consistent  manner   o   monitor  on  a  regular  basis,  monitor  in  the  same  way  each  time,  and  make  sure   all  observers  use  the  same  way   •   step  4:  use  data  to  evaluate  and  make  decisions   o   summarize  and  graph  data,  evaluate  against  criteria  for  success,  and  make   decisions  based  on  outcomes     Critical  differences  between  event-­‐based  and  time-­‐based  measures     •   event-­‐based  measures   o   most  simple  methods  of  counting  behavior   o   key  feature:  observance  of  a  behavior  drives  recording   o   advantage:  accuracy  of  direct  transfer  of  observations  to  data     o   disadvantage:  require  constant  attention  and  can  be  quite  cumbersome  while   performing  other  daily  tasks   •   time-­‐based  measures     o   key  feature:  passage  of  time  drives  recording   o   when  a  time  interval  passes,  T  indicates  if  behavior  has  occurred   o   advantage:  much  easier  to  use  in  classroom  setting   o   disadvantage:  not  as  accurate  as  event-­‐based  methods     Selection  of  appropriate  measurement  systems  based  on  behavior     •   frequency  recording  (EBR)   o   requires  T  to  record  each  instance  of  behavior   o   consistency  of  observations  is  important,  but  can  use  time  to  make  rates  of   incidents  when  consistency  is  not  feasible   o   requires  topographical  definition  with  beginning  and  ending  and  for  behaviors  to   be  of  equal  duration   •   permanent  product  (EBR)   o   used  when  a  behavior  results  in  a  product  that  can  be  saved  and  assessed  at  a   later  time   o   measures  effects/outcomes  of  a  behavior   o   does  not  require  much  supervision   o   needs  to  be  used  with  permanent,  durable  outcomes   •   controlled  presentation   o   appropriate  when  target  behavior  depends  on  antecedent  event   o   answered  in  terms  of  percent  of  opportunities   o   advantage:  allows  observer  to  account  for  varying  opportunities   •   trials  to  criterion  (EBR)   o   used  when  you  want  to  record  the  number  of  attempts  needed  to  complete  a   behavior  to  some  predestined  criterion   o   most  appropriate  for  use  with  instructional  intervention  as  a  measure  of   acquisition  or  fluency   o   must  have  a  working  definition  of  acceptable  criterion   •   duration  recording  (EBR)   o   useful  when  behavior  happens  in  unequal  durations  and  without  recognizable   antecedent   o   used  when  T  wishes  to  record  amount  of  time  S  is  engaged  in  behavior   o   always  reported  in  intervals  of  time,  either  as  a  total  or  average   o   disadvantage:  requires  constant  attention  by  the  observer   o   should  only  be  considered  when  T  has  sufficient  time  to  complete  all  steps   •   Latency  Recording  (EBR)   o   Used  when  we  wish  to  know  the  length  of  time  between  an  antecedent  and  a   behavior   o   Very  similar  to  duration  recording,  except  watch  is  started  when  antecedent   occurs  and  stops  when  behavior  occurs   o   Not  concerned  with  length  of  behavior  but  rather  how  long  it  takes  the  behavior   to  begin   o   Suited  for:  stimulus-­‐response  situations   o   Not  suited  for:  frequent  antecedents  or  long  latencies   •   Partial  Interval  Recording  (TBR)   o   Can  be  used  when  people  don’t  have  time  for  a  duration  instrument   o   Used  when  behaviors  occur  occasionally  or  at  a  low  rate  and  EBR  methods  are   inappropriate  or  not  feasible   o   Record  +  if  behavior  occurred  during  interval   o   Disadvantage:  overestimation  can  occur   o   Rule  of  thumb:  make  intervals  shorter  than  highest  number  of  behaviors   observed  during  and  observation  period  divided  into  the  total  amount  of  time   observed   •   Whole  interval  recording  (TBR)   o   Appropriate  when  behaviors  are  of  high  rate  and  duration  but  event-­‐based   methods  are  inappropriate  or  not  feasible   o   +  recorded  only  if  the  behavior  occurred  for  the  ENTIRE  interval   o   disadvantage:  tends  to  underestimate  behavior   o   rule  of  thumb:  whole  interval  sizes  should  be  set  near  the  length  of  the  shortest   observed  occurrence  of  behavior   •   momentary  interval  recording  (TBR)   o   requires  T  to  observe  S  at  end  of  interval  to  see  if  behavior  is  happening  at  that   moment   o   appropriate  when  behaviors  occur  sporadically  at  high  rates,  when  EBR  methods   are  inappropriate/not  feasible,  and  when  T  has  little  time  to  observe   o   used  when  partial  would  cause  great  overestimation  and  interval  would  cause   great  underestimation     o   disadvantage:  tends  to  underestimate  behavior   o   rule  of  thumb:  interval  size  should  be  smaller-­‐  T  should  consider  baseline  rate  of   behavior  and  develop  interval  size  that  will  capture  occurrence  and   nonoccurrence         Monitoring  behavior  across  all  students  in  the  school     •   decisions  we  make  for  rules,  routines,  and  arrangements  are  programming  and   intervention  decisions  that  must  be  both  predicted  on  and  evaluated  by  data   •   provides  a  simple  method  of  evaluating  predictors  of  past  problem  behaviors   •   can  be  used  for  environment-­‐specific  behavior  assessments  (cafeteria  or  recess)   •   use  of  event-­‐based  school  or  classroom  data  can  facilitate  strategic  planning  to  create   more  effective  and  more  efficiently  delivered  procedures   •   data  collection  and  analysis  across  school  is  most  effective  and  efficient  way  to  identify   the  predictors  of  behavioral  failure     Effective  Instructional  Delivery  Article  Notes:   Introduction   •   T  need  alternative  teaching  strategies  to  generate  engagement  and  encourage   appropriate  behaviors  since  behaviors  are  typically  caused  by  those  S  who  are  already   academically  behind   •   EI  and  numerous,  daily  OTR  is  used  to  create  a  positive  learning  environment,  which   reduces  negative  S  behavior,  and  improves  student-­‐teacher  relationships   •   EI  requires  giving  high  rates  of  opportunities  to  respond  (OTR)   o   Examples:  T  questioning  or  cueing  technique   o   Active  response  (AR):  S  answers  verbally  or  in  written  form   •   AR  increases  accuracy  and  rate  of  comprehension,  fluency,  reducing  disruptive   behaviors,  and  increasing  on-­‐task  behavior   Choral  Responding   •   What  is  it?   •       All  S  answering  verbally  in  unison   •   Why  does  it  work?   o    Prompts  S  to  briskly  respond,  which  increases  attention  and  number  of   responses   o   decreases  chance  to  be  off  task,  passive,  or  distracted   o   gives  T  immediate  feedback  on  understanding  and  comprehension   •   how  to  implement   o   asks  questions  that  have  only  one  correct,  short  (1-­‐3  word)  answer   o   wait  time  of  3  seconds  between  questions  and  prompting  responses   o   use  predictable  phrases/signals  to  prompt  responses   o   present  questions  at  a  fast,  lively  pace   o   can  occasionally  call  on  individual  S  to  monitor  performance  (aka  mixed   responding):  keeps  S  on  their  toes  with  element  of  surprise   o   use  pre-­‐correction  strategies  to  help  contain  the  noise  level  and  high-­‐energy  S   Response  Cards     •   What  is  it?   o   Personal  white  boards  or  preprinted  cards  used  by  S  to  answer  a  T  questions   •   Why  does  it  work?   o   Provides  an  equal  opportunity  for  all  S  to  participate   o   Prevents  S  from  losing  interest,  being  discouraged,  or  being  disruptive  while   waiting  for  their  turn   o   Allows  T  to  assess  all  S  and  provide  immediate  feedback   o   Led  to  an  improvement  to  test  scores  and  decrease  in  disruptive  and  off-­‐task   behavior   •   how  to  implement  it?   o   Must  teach  expected  behaviors  of  response  cards  and  provide  clear  instructions   and  modeling  of  cue  cards   o   Prepare  questions  that  have  1-­‐2  word  responses   o   Quickly  assess  S  responses  and  provide  feedback   o   Offer  correct  answer  and  explanation  to  entire  class   o   Ask  questions  that  are  relatively  near  the  developmental  level  of  all  S    Errorless  learning   •   What  is  it?   o   Questions  containing  embedded  correct  answer  with  eventual  prompt  fading   •   why  does  it  work?   o   Designed  to  reduce  incorrect  responding,  leading  to  mastery  of  content,  since   there  is  only  one  choice,  fewer  distractions,  and  little  unnecessary  information   o   Decreases  the  likelihood  of  incorrect  answers  in  the  future   o   Makes  difficult  problems  easy  to  complete   o   Lessens  likelihood  of  S  acting  out  as  an  avoidance  technique   o   Slowly  fading  prompts  increases  S  independence   •   how  to  implement  it?   o    Identify  patterns  of  incorrect  responses   o   imbed  correct  answer  in  question  stem  to  increase  probability  of  correct   response   o   add  two  or  more  possible  responses  when  getting  consistently  right  answers   o   gradually  fade  prompts   o   transitioning  to  more  difficult  questions  and  using  gradual  fading  helps  T  assess  S   learning   Wait  Time     •   What  is  it?     o   3-­‐5  second  pause  between  T  question  and  S  response   •   Why  does  it  work?   o   Gives  S  opportunity  to  process  questions  and  formulate  an  answer   o   Improves  S  use  of  language  and  logic   o   Allows  S  opportunity  to  process  and  retrieve  prior  information   o   Increases  likelihood  of  participation,  logical  arguments,  and  student-­‐to-­‐student   interactions   •   how  to  implement  it?   o    Use  cue  cards  counting  down  after  asking  a  question   o   use  cue  for  when  it  is  appropriate  to  answer     Article  Notes:   Introduction   •   rules  alone  exerted  little  effect  on  classroom  behavior   •   ignoring  inappropriate  behavior  and  showing  approval  for  appropriate  behavior  in   combination  were  most  effective   •   showing  approval  for  appropriate  behavior  is  key  to  effective  classroom  management   •   social  reinforcers  such  as  smiling,  praising,  making  eye  contact,  being  near,  and  giving   attention  help  maintain  effective  S  behavior   •   previous  research  has  found  that  T  can  create  problem  behaviors  in  S  through  the  way   we  respond  to  their  S     Methods   •   setting:  second  grade  classroom;  kindergarten  classroom   •   population:  29  students  ranging  in  1  standard  deviation  of  on-­‐level  school  progress;  20  S     Table  1:  Operationalizing  Behaviors:  Behavior  Coding  for  S   •   inappropriate  behaviors   o   gross  motor   o   object  noise   o   disturbance  of  other’s  property   o   contact  (high  and  low  intensity)   o   verbalization   o   turning  around  –  4  sec  duration  or  turning  around  more  than  90  degrees   o   other  inappropriate  behavior   o   mouthing  objects   o   isolate  play   •   appropriate  behaviors   o   time  on  task   o   answering  questions   o   listening   o   raising  hand   o   working  on  assignments     Table  2:  Coding  Teacher  Behaviors   I.   T  approval  following  appropriate  S  behavior   o   Contact   o   Praise   o   Facial  attention   II.   T  approval  following  inappropriate  S  behavior   o   Same  codes  as  I   III.   T  disapproval  following  appropriate  S  behavior   o   Holding  the  child   o   Putting  child  in  the  hall   o   Criticism   o   Yelling/raising  voice   o   Threats   o   Negative  facial  attention   IV.   T  disapproval  following  inappropriate  S  behavior   o   Same  codes  as  III   V.   “Timeout”  procedures  (withdrawal  of  reinforcers  as  consequence  of  disruptive   behaviors  that  T  cannot  ignore)   o   T  turns  lights  out  and  says  nothing   o   T  turns  back  and  waits  for  silence   o   T  stops  talking  and  waits  for  quiet   o   Staying  in  for  recess   o   Sending  child  to  office   o   Depriving  child  of  privilege     VI.   Academic  recognition   o   Calling  on  child  for  answer  and  giving  feedback  for  academic  correctness     Rules   •   Leaves  no  room  for  doubt  as  to  what  is  expected   •   Should  be  formulated  with  the  class  and  posted  in  a  visible  location   •   Guidelines   o   Make  rules  short  and  to  the  point   o   5-­‐6  rules   o   phrase  the  rules  in  a  positive,  not  a  negative  behavior   o   keep  running  record  of  times  rules  are  reviewed  in  class  (aim  for  4-­‐6  a  day)   o   have  S  recite  rules  rather  than  T  always  stating  them   o   Remind  S  of  rules  when  someone  misbehaves     Ignoring  Inappropriate  Behavior   •   Ignore  behaviors  that  interfere  with  leaning  or  teaching,  unless  a  child  is  inflicting  harm   •   Examples  of  behaviors:  gross  motor,  verbal  noise,  when  S  engages  in  something  when   supposed  to  be  doing  other  things,  object  noises,  disturbing  others     Praise   •   “catching  the  child  being  good”   •   making  comments  designed  to  reward  child  for  good  behavior   •   given  at  first  signs  of  appropriate  behavior  and  work  towards  greater  goals   •   catch  as  many  good  behaviors  as  possible   •   persistence  is  key   •   give  praise  for:   o   achievement   o   pro-­‐social  behavior   o   following  group  rules   o   concentrating  on  work   o   raising  hand  when  appropriate   •   general  rule:     o   give  praise  and  attention  to  behaviors  which  facilitate  learning,  tell  the  child   what  they  are  being  praised  for,  and  reinforce  behaviors  incompatible  with  those   you  wish  to  decrease     Screencast  Notes:   In  Madsen  article…   •   Don’t  focus  too  much  on  method,  but  focus  on  the  introduction  to  determine  the  why   and  what  problem  they  addressed   •   In  methods:  pay  attention  to  setting  and  population  to  make  comparison  to  own   classroom   •   Table  1  lists  good  operationalizing  behaviors:  need  to  be  able  to  define  what  theses  are!   •   Table  2  coding  T  behaviors  should  also  be  focused  on!   •   Pay  attention  to  what  rules  and  praise  are  and  ways  this  can  be  transferred  to  your  class   •   DRO:  Differentiated  Reinforcement  of  Other  behavior     Self-­‐Monitoring  Video  Notes:   •   Self-­‐monitoring  project:  pick  behavior  that  is  annoying  for  me   •   Remember  replacement  behavior  has  to  be  just  as  reinforcing       Db  Post:   2  parts   I.   Self-­‐Reflection:  Punishment   II.   Self-­‐monitoring  Target  Behavior   a.   List  a  specific,  observable,  measurable  target  behavior  you  would  like  to  increase   or  decrease.    


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