Module 4 Notes
Module 4 Notes SPED 7007
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Module 4 Notes Measuring Behavior in the School Written by: Krista Anstead January 2016 Learning Outcomes: 1. Define Behavior o Dimensions of Behavior 2. The Steps of the Measurement Process o Step 1: Determine What to Monitor o Step 2: Determine the Simplest Way to Collect Data o Step 3: Monitor Behavior in a Consistent Manner o Step 4: Use Data to Evaluate and Make Decisions Behavior Monitoring Methods o Event-‐Based Recording o Time-‐Based Recording Readings/References: Haydon, T., Borders, C., Embury, D., & Clarke, L. (2009). Using effective instructional delivery as a class wide management tool. Beyond Behavior, 18(2), 12-‐17. Madsen, C., Becker, C., & Thomas, D. Rules, praise, and ignoring: Elements of elementary classroom control. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1(2), 139-‐150. Scott, T., & Anderson, C. (2012). Overview of a functional approach to intervention. In Managing Classroom Behavior Using Positive Behavior Supports. Boston: Pearson. Acronyms: • Effective instruction = EI • Opportunities to Respond = OTR • Active Response = AR • Event-‐based recording = EBR • Time-‐based recording= TBR Chapter 4 Notes: Operational definitions of behavior • Operational definitions must be observable and measurable • Should be developed in consideration of the most important features of the behavior 6 dimensions by which behaviors are defined • Topography and locus should be part of any definition of behavior • Topography (what did it look like) o Observational properties o most important part of definition o describes exactly how you know a behavior occurred • locus (when and where did it happen) o provides context for behavior • frequency (how many were there) o reveals how often a behavior occurs or how many occurrences were observed • duration (how long did it last) o can measure total amount of time engaged in behavior o can measure average duration of behavior o can use variation of duration recording (latency) • latency (how long before it happened) o time between antecedent and behavior o important for monitoring whether there is change in response time • intensity (how hard was it) o measure of the force with which a behavior is displayed Generic set of steps for developing a behavior monitoring program • step 1: determine what to monitor o identify observed problems, important questions, and determine what you need to know • step 2: determine the simplest way to collect data o find the simplest way to collect data, practice the data collection mentioned, and teach the method to other observers • step 3: monitor behavior in a consistent manner o monitor on a regular basis, monitor in the same way each time, and make sure all observers use the same way • step 4: use data to evaluate and make decisions o summarize and graph data, evaluate against criteria for success, and make decisions based on outcomes Critical differences between event-‐based and time-‐based measures • event-‐based measures o most simple methods of counting behavior o key feature: observance of a behavior drives recording o advantage: accuracy of direct transfer of observations to data o disadvantage: require constant attention and can be quite cumbersome while performing other daily tasks • time-‐based measures o key feature: passage of time drives recording o when a time interval passes, T indicates if behavior has occurred o advantage: much easier to use in classroom setting o disadvantage: not as accurate as event-‐based methods Selection of appropriate measurement systems based on behavior • frequency recording (EBR) o requires T to record each instance of behavior o consistency of observations is important, but can use time to make rates of incidents when consistency is not feasible o requires topographical definition with beginning and ending and for behaviors to be of equal duration • permanent product (EBR) o used when a behavior results in a product that can be saved and assessed at a later time o measures effects/outcomes of a behavior o does not require much supervision o needs to be used with permanent, durable outcomes • controlled presentation o appropriate when target behavior depends on antecedent event o answered in terms of percent of opportunities o advantage: allows observer to account for varying opportunities • trials to criterion (EBR) o used when you want to record the number of attempts needed to complete a behavior to some predestined criterion o most appropriate for use with instructional intervention as a measure of acquisition or fluency o must have a working definition of acceptable criterion • duration recording (EBR) o useful when behavior happens in unequal durations and without recognizable antecedent o used when T wishes to record amount of time S is engaged in behavior o always reported in intervals of time, either as a total or average o disadvantage: requires constant attention by the observer o should only be considered when T has sufficient time to complete all steps • Latency Recording (EBR) o Used when we wish to know the length of time between an antecedent and a behavior o Very similar to duration recording, except watch is started when antecedent occurs and stops when behavior occurs o Not concerned with length of behavior but rather how long it takes the behavior to begin o Suited for: stimulus-‐response situations o Not suited for: frequent antecedents or long latencies • Partial Interval Recording (TBR) o Can be used when people don’t have time for a duration instrument o Used when behaviors occur occasionally or at a low rate and EBR methods are inappropriate or not feasible o Record + if behavior occurred during interval o Disadvantage: overestimation can occur o Rule of thumb: make intervals shorter than highest number of behaviors observed during and observation period divided into the total amount of time observed • Whole interval recording (TBR) o Appropriate when behaviors are of high rate and duration but event-‐based methods are inappropriate or not feasible o + recorded only if the behavior occurred for the ENTIRE interval o disadvantage: tends to underestimate behavior o rule of thumb: whole interval sizes should be set near the length of the shortest observed occurrence of behavior • momentary interval recording (TBR) o requires T to observe S at end of interval to see if behavior is happening at that moment o appropriate when behaviors occur sporadically at high rates, when EBR methods are inappropriate/not feasible, and when T has little time to observe o used when partial would cause great overestimation and interval would cause great underestimation o disadvantage: tends to underestimate behavior o rule of thumb: interval size should be smaller-‐ T should consider baseline rate of behavior and develop interval size that will capture occurrence and nonoccurrence Monitoring behavior across all students in the school • decisions we make for rules, routines, and arrangements are programming and intervention decisions that must be both predicted on and evaluated by data • provides a simple method of evaluating predictors of past problem behaviors • can be used for environment-‐specific behavior assessments (cafeteria or recess) • use of event-‐based school or classroom data can facilitate strategic planning to create more effective and more efficiently delivered procedures • data collection and analysis across school is most effective and efficient way to identify the predictors of behavioral failure Effective Instructional Delivery Article Notes: Introduction • T need alternative teaching strategies to generate engagement and encourage appropriate behaviors since behaviors are typically caused by those S who are already academically behind • EI and numerous, daily OTR is used to create a positive learning environment, which reduces negative S behavior, and improves student-‐teacher relationships • EI requires giving high rates of opportunities to respond (OTR) o Examples: T questioning or cueing technique o Active response (AR): S answers verbally or in written form • AR increases accuracy and rate of comprehension, fluency, reducing disruptive behaviors, and increasing on-‐task behavior Choral Responding • What is it? • All S answering verbally in unison • Why does it work? o Prompts S to briskly respond, which increases attention and number of responses o decreases chance to be off task, passive, or distracted o gives T immediate feedback on understanding and comprehension • how to implement o asks questions that have only one correct, short (1-‐3 word) answer o wait time of 3 seconds between questions and prompting responses o use predictable phrases/signals to prompt responses o present questions at a fast, lively pace o can occasionally call on individual S to monitor performance (aka mixed responding): keeps S on their toes with element of surprise o use pre-‐correction strategies to help contain the noise level and high-‐energy S Response Cards • What is it? o Personal white boards or preprinted cards used by S to answer a T questions • Why does it work? o Provides an equal opportunity for all S to participate o Prevents S from losing interest, being discouraged, or being disruptive while waiting for their turn o Allows T to assess all S and provide immediate feedback o Led to an improvement to test scores and decrease in disruptive and off-‐task behavior • how to implement it? o Must teach expected behaviors of response cards and provide clear instructions and modeling of cue cards o Prepare questions that have 1-‐2 word responses o Quickly assess S responses and provide feedback o Offer correct answer and explanation to entire class o Ask questions that are relatively near the developmental level of all S Errorless learning • What is it? o Questions containing embedded correct answer with eventual prompt fading • why does it work? o Designed to reduce incorrect responding, leading to mastery of content, since there is only one choice, fewer distractions, and little unnecessary information o Decreases the likelihood of incorrect answers in the future o Makes difficult problems easy to complete o Lessens likelihood of S acting out as an avoidance technique o Slowly fading prompts increases S independence • how to implement it? o Identify patterns of incorrect responses o imbed correct answer in question stem to increase probability of correct response o add two or more possible responses when getting consistently right answers o gradually fade prompts o transitioning to more difficult questions and using gradual fading helps T assess S learning Wait Time • What is it? o 3-‐5 second pause between T question and S response • Why does it work? o Gives S opportunity to process questions and formulate an answer o Improves S use of language and logic o Allows S opportunity to process and retrieve prior information o Increases likelihood of participation, logical arguments, and student-‐to-‐student interactions • how to implement it? o Use cue cards counting down after asking a question o use cue for when it is appropriate to answer Article Notes: Introduction • rules alone exerted little effect on classroom behavior • ignoring inappropriate behavior and showing approval for appropriate behavior in combination were most effective • showing approval for appropriate behavior is key to effective classroom management • social reinforcers such as smiling, praising, making eye contact, being near, and giving attention help maintain effective S behavior • previous research has found that T can create problem behaviors in S through the way we respond to their S Methods • setting: second grade classroom; kindergarten classroom • population: 29 students ranging in 1 standard deviation of on-‐level school progress; 20 S Table 1: Operationalizing Behaviors: Behavior Coding for S • inappropriate behaviors o gross motor o object noise o disturbance of other’s property o contact (high and low intensity) o verbalization o turning around – 4 sec duration or turning around more than 90 degrees o other inappropriate behavior o mouthing objects o isolate play • appropriate behaviors o time on task o answering questions o listening o raising hand o working on assignments Table 2: Coding Teacher Behaviors I. T approval following appropriate S behavior o Contact o Praise o Facial attention II. T approval following inappropriate S behavior o Same codes as I III. T disapproval following appropriate S behavior o Holding the child o Putting child in the hall o Criticism o Yelling/raising voice o Threats o Negative facial attention IV. T disapproval following inappropriate S behavior o Same codes as III V. “Timeout” procedures (withdrawal of reinforcers as consequence of disruptive behaviors that T cannot ignore) o T turns lights out and says nothing o T turns back and waits for silence o T stops talking and waits for quiet o Staying in for recess o Sending child to office o Depriving child of privilege VI. Academic recognition o Calling on child for answer and giving feedback for academic correctness Rules • Leaves no room for doubt as to what is expected • Should be formulated with the class and posted in a visible location • Guidelines o Make rules short and to the point o 5-‐6 rules o phrase the rules in a positive, not a negative behavior o keep running record of times rules are reviewed in class (aim for 4-‐6 a day) o have S recite rules rather than T always stating them o Remind S of rules when someone misbehaves Ignoring Inappropriate Behavior • Ignore behaviors that interfere with leaning or teaching, unless a child is inflicting harm • Examples of behaviors: gross motor, verbal noise, when S engages in something when supposed to be doing other things, object noises, disturbing others Praise • “catching the child being good” • making comments designed to reward child for good behavior • given at first signs of appropriate behavior and work towards greater goals • catch as many good behaviors as possible • persistence is key • give praise for: o achievement o pro-‐social behavior o following group rules o concentrating on work o raising hand when appropriate • general rule: o give praise and attention to behaviors which facilitate learning, tell the child what they are being praised for, and reinforce behaviors incompatible with those you wish to decrease Screencast Notes: In Madsen article… • Don’t focus too much on method, but focus on the introduction to determine the why and what problem they addressed • In methods: pay attention to setting and population to make comparison to own classroom • Table 1 lists good operationalizing behaviors: need to be able to define what theses are! • Table 2 coding T behaviors should also be focused on! • Pay attention to what rules and praise are and ways this can be transferred to your class • DRO: Differentiated Reinforcement of Other behavior Self-‐Monitoring Video Notes: • Self-‐monitoring project: pick behavior that is annoying for me • Remember replacement behavior has to be just as reinforcing Db Post: 2 parts I. Self-‐Reflection: Punishment II. Self-‐monitoring Target Behavior a. List a specific, observable, measurable target behavior you would like to increase or decrease.
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