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Notes Part 2

by: Molly McGeeney

Notes Part 2 HST 102 01

Molly McGeeney

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Notes for Wednesdays exam
Introduction to European Civilization
Class Notes
European History
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly McGeeney on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HST 102 01 at Grand Valley State University taught by Houser in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to European Civilization in History at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
iii. Church and State ­ Feudalism- the Economic, Political and Social Structure of the Middle ages in Europe (the need for protection because of the barbarians) ­ Is characterized by:  Weak central government  Rigid Class Structure  Life on the Manor (the manorial System) ­ By 1000 the barbarians mix with the people of the roman empire ­ Western Omelet:  Different groups of people mixing together to make up a culture 1. Christian Culture 2. Germanic Culture 3. Greek Roman Culture  What are the differences of these cultures? How do they mesh together?  Humanistic, god centered, survival of the fittest  Europeans going to struggle to get along with one another because of their different cultures and view points ­ Example: Hypothetica  Can’t affectively control trade so you would divide the territory into chunks of land (fief)  The king would give a fief to a Noble and in return the noble would provide military  The Nobles still can’t control so they will divide their land into smaller fief  If they were attacked by a foreign country the kings would call on the nobles to use their army  However, there was no loyalty, nobles would try to make a better deal, the king can’t control the nobles and trust them to follow his rule because they are in control of the army  Peasants are in poverty so the others can practice war and not need to farm  In theory everyone would obey the superior  Weak central government- because vassals and lords are in control of people that are under them (local lord is more respected)  No trade between manors-the farms people farm on- self-sufficient did not need the help of others ­ The most powerful leaders are within the Catholic Church  Social  Concept of eternity (think about example of movie that begins with the big bang and ends with today- we are only the last 2 minutes)  Your job is to be good in life so you can go to heaven  Roman Catholic Church control education  Sacraments- key to salvation, the things people must do if they want to go to heaven, church is still in control  Baptism and Eucharist or mass (communion- every day of holy obligation) must do these to get to heaven  Sacraments are a miracle- you are bringing God’s grace into you  Built cathedrals to be so big that you realize how small you are- Gods power  Political  Excommunication- power the pope has to kick someone out of the church (sending them to hell) would have control over Kings because they don’t want to go to hell or have the nobles overthrow them  Interdict- kick the entire country out of the church  Cardinals and archbishops are both appointed by the Pope  Economical th  Tithe- 1/10 of their income goes to the church every year  Church lands- owns 15%-20% of the land ­     Round one- 1075  Pope Gregory VII Vs. Henry IV (Holy Roman Empire)  This conflict was known as the Investiture Controversy (archbishop of Milan)  Pope excommunicates Henry IV- nobles want to take some of Henry’s land when her realizes he is wrong (begs to be let into the church outside of the Popes home)  Let’s henry back in the church but the pope is still the most powerful  “Go to Canossa”- term used to explain this  The pope wins ­     Round two- 1215  Pope Innocent III vs. King John (England)  Both wanted to claim the right to appoint the archbishop of Canterbury  The church goes on strike when it doesn’t get its way, Nobles overtook King John  The pope wins (Magna Carta- great charter) ­     Crusades  Greatest illustration of the churches power is the Crusades  First launched by Pope Urban II in 1096  Marched thousands of people into lands that they want to control (example of the power of the church- Pope tells them to go)  They lose  Abbasid Caliphate  Between the years 1000 and 1300 in Europe:  Towns  Trade  Kings love because it brought wealth into the country  Use of money  Kings loved this  Money=power  Bourgeoisie- town dweller aka burghers  Kings loved this development because there is more wealth in the country and for them, (can tax which creates army’s)  the kings want more power than the lords  the king loved bourgeoisie because he can tax him  they also like the kings because they are the protection from other lords  people liked the kings over the nobles/ the kings offer protection, good for business (natural allies against nobles) o kings get used to the idea  What caused this?  Feudalism had done its job- the need for protection  By 1000 there was no place for armies to storm and the people are now settled and became the people of Europe ­     Round three 1305  Pope Boniface VIII vs. Philip IV (France)  Struggled with taxing the church  King of France is getting ready for a war and so is the king of England  100 year war  Keep taxing- the church has the most money so the kings wanted to tax the church  When the pope hears about this he makes an announcement saying that the kings of countries cannot collect taxes from the church or the church officials  King of England does not respond to the Pope, continues to collect taxes  King of France responds to the Pope saying he will tax whomever he wants and he can’t tell the king what to do  The Pope retaliates and excommunicates Philip  He raises an army to go arrest the Pope  The Pope flees Rome and dies 3 weeks later  Philip realizes that they need to choose the next Pope, and because his army is already in Rome they can rig the election  A French Pope is elected- New Pope declares he is not safe in Rome so moves the capital to Avignon, France (so the French king can protect him)  New Pope makes sure that the next Pope is also French (appointed more French cardinals)  For over 70 years the Capital of the Roman Catholic church is in Avignon- known as the Avignon Exile  The king (Philip IV) won- how could there be such a shift in power (from PopeKing) o Shows how powerful the Kings became with the buildup of towns, money, trade, and bourgeois  Gregory XI-1377 wants to move the capital back to Rome but dies a few months after  1378- cardinals come together to elect a new Pope o The people of Rome are angry- so the cardinals are concerned with starting a riot if they elect another French Pope so they elect an Italian Pope go back to Avignon and do a reelection o Elect a French Pope and the Italian Pope starts to excommunicate each other and their followers  This is known as the Great Schism- split of the church (1378-1411)  Try to reelect another Pope (3 Pope)  Council of Constance in 1414- a council of leading church officials get together to find a compromise (Great Schism came to an end) th  Elect a 4 Pope that will stay in Rome  Damage because of these conflicts in the church: ꜗ People are confused, question their belief in the church ꜗ Upset because everyone got excommunicated ꜗ Goes against the bible ꜗ Church looks like a failing institution not Gods institution ꜗ Has to do with power and not God  John Wycliffe (1320-1384)- England  Raised the question that maybe the church is failed, don’t need the church to go to heaven, only need to be a good person  He gains followers  Jan Hus (aka John Huss)- Bohemia born in 1369- agrees with Wycliffe  In 1415, after ending the Great Schism, Hus was called before the council of Constance because he was challenging their views  Want to talk to him, promise him safety but they arrest him and burn him at the stake for being a disbeliever  But he had followers and there were wars because of this  Many people were killed who followed him but the idea does not die with them  In 1428, they dig up John Wycliffe body and burn it at the stake  Ask Why:  Compare western Europe to other regions of the world in 1000- would not look like it had any potential to be the most powerful place in the world o Compare western Europe to any of the other powerful regions of the world in the 1400’s and I was the least unified  Sailed across world 1492, powerful army, government, able to produce culture  Credit to town, trade, money, and bourgeoisie  But they did not have Caesaropapism- It is when the religious leader and king are the same  This leads to the separation of church and state because people could not shut down both the political leader and the religious leader- that made them stronger and more powerful iv. Renaissance ­ French term that means “rebirth” ­ However that is not the best definition because rebirth means that something happened over night but it gradually happened overtime  Humanism:  Put humans at the center of attention (not God centered)  Glorification of humanity  The idea (philosophy that asserts) that this life is worth living for its own sake  Can also be defined as:  The admiration and emulation of ancient Greek and Roman culture  Liked that is was humanistic- opposite of what the church is teaching A. Art  Humanistic vs. more God and heaven like  Raphael is realistic- eye contact, depth, linear perspective and atmospheric perspective, Secularization of religion (make it about Mary and children but also about this world, mother, beauty- all to make it humanistic)  Older paintings: next world depiction, perfection, gold, ­ Petrarch (1304-1374)  Love Letters to Laura  Humanistic, earthly love, ­ Boccaccio (1313-1375)  The Decameron by Boccaccio  “the first prose masterpiece in the Italian language”  Written in Italian but it’s more important that it was written in the vernacular– meaning the language of the people, no longer written in Latin (language of the church, bible)  Written in 1348- style seemed modern, making fun of the divine comedy  Feminist style and theme, equality that was not common during this time  Challenged marriage (taking on the sacraments)  Shakespeare’s influence was Boccaccio ­ More art:  Giotto- the Lamentation  See for the first time a blue background not gold  Creating a humanistic tone  Gave his characters bulk, drama, story, feelings  Masaccio- The Holy Trinity  Revolutionary painting  Humanistic setting, anatomy, architecture, linear perspective,  Masaccio- The Tribute Money  Notice the Contrapposto stance- meaning weight shift, bringing realism, think about human quality of stance and life  Demonstrates balance (think about Castiglione story)  Renaissance person has balance and is good at everything  Donatello- David  Doing in sculpture what Masaccio was doing in painting  Stance, nude, emotion- smug  Standing on Goliath’s head  MAIN IDEA: Renaissance art is humanistic B. Architecture ­ Admiration and emulation of Greek and Roman culture  Roman arch, Greek and Roman pillars  Brunelleschi- Duomo (Roman Dome)  Started during the middle ages but finished during the Renaissance  Artists and architects needed to know their math and science to be able to support and create a dome  Vaulting was used to help hold up the building  Everything was symmetrical- striving for balance  This idea of balance and symmetry are both humanistic ­ Botticelli painted the birth of Venus  He glorified the human body  Venus was the Roman goddess of love  Showing the rebirth of Roman culture through the birth of love  Allegory for the Renaissance (this thought came later) ­ Raphael- The School of Athens  Roman arches  Posed thoughtfully  Linear Perspective  Plato and Aristotle are at the center- humanistic ­ Last supper  Jesus at the center  You know what time the painting is happening  When Jesus says one of them will betray them and in two days he is going to die  Still humanistic- halo, linear perspective  In the other painting you can’t tell what is happening or any emotions ­ Michelangelo  The Creation of Man  Heaven is like the brain of the universe?  Famous statue- David (similar to Donatello)  Difference:  Age  Detail  Specific moment in time  when David is looking to Goliath to kill him v. Niccolo Machiavelli ­ High renaissance from 1480-1520 ­ Wrote The Prince in 1513  Intended to be the handbook for rulers and leaders  All about power  If you want to be a leader this is what you must understand ­ Advice: (assumptions of human nature)  Be greedy but generous  Both loved and feared but if you can’t be both it’s better to be feared  Don’t want to be hated  Make the people happy  He thinks humans are not trustworthy, born naturally evil: Page 4 and 6  Ungrateful, fickle, liars, deceivers, shun danger, greedy  Generous or miserly?  Religious or secular? Need to be secular (can’t worry about the ten commandments)  Would be best to be secular but appear to be religious  Appearances matter  His assumption about human nature: “the ends justify the means”  His end is power  Cesare Borgia- Prince of Mulan, his army captured two cities during the Italian wars, wanted law and order/ people will fear him by setting people to root the city but another army will come in and take over the thefts, Machiavelli liked what he did  Is Machiavelli’s advice immoral?  He claims that it is amoral- don’t question morality, question power  Appear moral but don’t have to be moral if you are getting power  Bible tells the way should be, he tells it the way people are/ how the world is  Machiavelli vs. St. Louis  St. louis talks about morality and living in the way of God  Machiavelli is about power and living in a way to gain power  Is Machiavelli a humanist?  Well, not in the sense of Michelangelo’s David, meaning that he doesn’t glorify humans. But, he is a humanist. o Everything he does is to please the people and not to please God o This world based, humans at the center of attention  France, Spain, England- becoming strong unified countries- Italy needed to unify but they aren’t vii. Protestant Reformation ­ Growing abuses of the church through the 15 century and into the 16 th  Incelibacy  Simony- sale of church positions to the highest bidder  Nepotism- giving church positions to family members  Sales of Indulgences- during confession priest will tell you that you can give money to the “poor” to fix their wrong doing- they would give money to the priests  Given paper saying your sins are forgiven for a price  Can buy it for others (parents who died) you could pay for their sins to be forgiven ­ People would go to the church in hopes to make money, have power and prestige ­ Notice abuses mentioned in the King reading: Alexander VI (1492-1503) fathering at least six children and having prostitutes and mistresses running around the Vatican; or Julius II (1503-1513), also known as the “Warrior Pope” for all of his wars, who also fathered children and had a parade of mistresses. ­     Martin Luther  Luther’s thunderstorm moment came in 1505 (age 21); he was ordained in 1508. Put this guy on a pilgrimage to Rome in 1510 – what does he see? Rome is a dump, prostitutes everywhere, irreligious priests – even priests who make fun of religious people.  When he comes back to Germany and see the work of Johann Tetzel (who sells indulgences)  Archbishop of Mainz- he had to pay money to the pope to get the position  On October 31, 1517 Martin Luther posts the 95 theses on the door of the Wittenberg church, does it on all saints day because everyone will see this  All of them are about the churches wrong doings  Challenges anyone to debate him on these  He is taking on the catholic church  The Pope does nothing- doesn’t think he can do any harm ­ Marin Luther’s ninety five thesis  All have something to do with the sales of indulgences  They became revolutionary but this is not how Luther sees himself, he only wanted the church to change its way, had no intention of leaving the church  Pope does not have power to persuade God  Pope can’t insure your path to heaven  Money can’t change Gods authority  God is where the power is not in any human being even the pope  Give to the poor and needy not to the church  How do we know what God wants- through the bible, the pope does not know any better than another person  Challenges the Popes authority  Main idea: salvation by faith alone ­ Salvation by faith alone  Biblical authority  God will save you if you believe in him  Nothing in the bible says that you can buy your way into heaven or out of purgatory  Essentially saying that you don’t need any church, pope, priest, or religious official  This leads to millions of people leaving the church  Happened in Germany because:  Far from the Vatican  Printing press  More secular- renaissance was bigger in Germany (art, life- not as concerned with how to get to heaven)  Germans are more religious- should be upset with all the money leaving Germany and going to Rome  In 1519 Charles V was named Holy Roman Empire  Most powerful man of his time  He is also King of Spain and Holy Roman Empire (he rules all of southern Italy and Sicily)  He is extremely rich, making Spain rich and powerful  He wants to talk to Martin Luther because he is getting in the way of him taking over and controlling more land  1521 the Diet of Worms was called  Want to find out if he is an outlaw  In 1520 they excommunicated Martin Luther  Charles V has Luther vs. top catholic scholars  See handout  “here I stand”  Saying that if it’s not in the scriptures than he won’t accept it  The church responses was saying that not everyone should be able to read and interpret the bible in their own way  “bible as sole authority” Luther thinks everyone should have individual interpretation of the bible (not popes, priests, church councils or any church structures)  The church declares the Luther is an outlaw and if he is caught again he will be killed  Frederick the Wise of Saxony will protect Luther (he has his own castle and army)  Junker George- Luther’s new name and he translates the bible into ꜗ He keeps the ideas of sacraments to two: ꜗ Only two that are important: baptism and communion/mass/Eucharist because they are the only two in the bible BUT they don’t help you get to heaven ꜗ Clergy have no special or mysterious powers ꜗ Consubstantiation (not transubstantiation- changing of the bread and wine into the body and body of Jesus) Luther does not believe that this change happens but he believes that God is there during mass but not because of a priests doing  Is Luther a Humanist? ꜗ He is not a humanist- there is too much emphasis on the afterlife, not this world focused, God is at the center of attention, focus on the bible  In summary: o Luther was successful because:  “back to basics movement”  Politics in Germany  Printing Press o Appeal of Lutheranism to:  The Nobility- people who control land, have their own armies, nobles see Charles V as their enemy because the nobles will lose power in their land if he takes over, Luther promises them the church land, converting to Lutheranism means no tithe and more land for them  The Bourgeoisie- like to be self-employed (Lutheranism said that your faith was individual and your faith was on your own- this is something people liked)  The Peasantry- this is 90% of the population- they don’t know how to read and write but they look at Luther’s movement (monk taking on catholic church and wins- success story for the “little” guy) as a way to over throw oppressive authority, interpret the bible as Jesus- a poor guy “like them”  A peasant rebellion breaks out in 1524- inspired by Lutheranism but Luther disagreed with them- his movement is not about bettering your life in this world but it is about bettering your life in heaven  They argue that they were allowed to interpret the bible in their own way- Luther did not like what they were doing so the nobles take on the Peasants  100 thousand peasants died Continue on Protestant Reformation:  Schmalkaldic League (nobles)- Alliance of German Protestant (Lutheran) prices against Charles V  The War of the Schmalkaldic League was the first round in the Wars of Religion. In this case the two sides could be seen as: ꜗ Charles V vs. the Schmalkaldic League Or ꜗ Catholics vs. Protestants  Francis I (1515-1547)   Catholic France, led by Catholic Francis I of France supported Protestants in Germany AGAINST Charles V. Great who is also Catholic  Example of political nature of the Wars of Religion  Thinks of it fighting against Charles not a fellow catholic ꜗ He does it for: o Power o Fear  The Wars on Religion can be viewed:  Religiously as Protestants vs. Catholics  Or politically, as Emperor vs. Nobility  Or internationally as Habsburgs vs. Everyone else  In 1555, the War of the Schmalkaldic League ended with the Peace of Augsburg (temporarily ending the Wars of Religion in Germany).  Each prince was given the right to determine the religion (either Lutheranism or Catholicism) in his region.  People have 3 choices: convert, move, or don’t make it known you aren’t following the same religion  Winners and Losers in the first round of the Wars on Religion:  Winners- Nobles, Lutherans, Protestants  Losers- Charles V, Catholics  Is this a victory for freedom of religion?  No, for the people but yes for the Princes because they get to pick a religion  Small step forward towards the freedom of religion  John Calvin (1509-1564)  Famous for Institutes of the Christian Religion- he puts forth the concept of predestination  Predestination- God has a plan for you and it does not deviate from that- because God is all powerful and all knowing  Would you expect it to be more lenient or strict? o Much stricter because the catholic church and Luther had nothing against alcohol, working on Sunday, bright colored clothes but Calvinism had a problem with all of these  Would you expect it to spread very far or very fast? o You would not expect it to but it DID o In Scotland they are known as Presbyterians, in England they were known as Puritans, France known as Huguenots, Neverland’s- Dutch Reformed Church, also known as Calvinism Area of Belief Doctrine of the Luther’s Belief Calvin’s Belief Church How is a Christian Sacraments and What does the Nothing you can able to reach good works bible say? – faith do- predestination salvation? (giving money to allow the poor, helping fellow man) Should a Christian No Yes Yes read and interpret the Bible? What powers Preform miracles None None are to be held (on Sundays) by the Clergy? What should be No No the proper use of relics and images? What should be No No the proper authority of the Pope? ­ Some Lutherans will use a crucifix; no Calvinists ever would. Lutherans and Calvinists are both opposed to relics, although Anglicans will use them. ­ Anglicans will use incense, Lutherans less so and Calvinists not at all. ­ No statues of Mary in a Protestant Church. ­ The Lutheran and Anglican Churches have bishops; Calvinists don’t ­ Origins of Anglicanism  Henry VII- first of the Tudor monarchs  (very Machiavellian- all about power)  Wanted to make an alliance with other powerful countries aka Spain at the time  The way you make an alliance to have your kid marry their kid  In 1501 Arthur marries Catherine of Aragon  Henry married Catherine of Aragon (his brother’s widow) and in q509 took the throne as Henry VIII (1509-1547)  Did not consummate the marriage  Arthur dies before they could consummate it  His younger son Henry married Catherine of Aragon (his brother’s widow)  Had to go to the pope for it to not be considered insect ­ In 1527 Henry VII and Catherine can’t have any more kids (they only have daughters) and he wants a son ­ He wants to marry his mistress- he can’t get divorced without consent of the Pope ­ Thomas Cromwell came up with an idea to bring all of England out of the Catholic Church by becoming protestant- still all about power  What he gets: take over all church lands, wealth, no one will may tithe to Rome it will stay in the country ­ 1534- Act of Supremacy  This act of parliament made the monarch of England (henry, and all future monarchs) head of the church of England  Interesting that he did it through parliament- they represent the people so the people will go along with the idea to leave the catholic church  Question: the King changed everyone’s religion, why was there no revolution or objection?  To the average person the change was not noticeable- it was very similar to the catholic church but without the pope  Some people objected were killed- only a few people died to get the message ­ Catholic Reformation (known by protestants as the “Counter-Reformation)  Decided they needed to do something about people leaving the church and the corruptness of the church ­ Council of Trent (1545-1563)  Council of Trent on Doctrine- to fix thought on sacraments and other doctrines but nothing was really changed in the mind of the protestants (conservative)  Council of Trent on Reform- Priests getting married, sale of indulgences- resolve these issues (liberal)  The reason it took them a while to make a council because the last time they had a council was the Council of Constance- when the council fired popes  Is the council more powerful than the pope? This is why popes did not want to call in a council to tell them what to do England in the 17 thCentury (1603-1688) o Two issues: 1. Political issue  King vs. Parliament (divine right principle vs. representative principle) 2. Religious issue  Anglicanism vs. Puritanism (Calvinists) o James I (1603-1625)  First of the Stuart Monarchs ◦ True Law of Free Monarchy- book he wrote ◦ Speech by James I to parliament ꜗ James thinks that a free monarchy means he can do whatever he wants, get rid of parliament, have more power- he is free (not people) from limitations except from God ꜗ Thinks that God made him king ꜗ Parliament had the “Power of the Purse”  This is known as Divine Right Monarchy- if anyone questions it than they would be questioning Gods decision to make him king and have him in control  Puritans: “purify” the Anglican Church: no “popery” ◦ Puritans hate that there is a pope (Calvinists) ◦ Essentially they hate Catholics ◦ Catholics Anglicans Lutherans  Calvinists (this is how far away Puritans are from Catholics  Puritans went to the King and the king said: “no bishop, no king” o Charles I (1625-1649)  Charles wanted to make an alliance with Spain  They were going to do this through marriage  Parliament does not want them to marry because this will affect the who country (politically and religiously)  Because she is catholic (the Spanish princes) instead he marries a French women who is also Catholic but they are Anglican  Charles I needed money as soon as he came to power to fight a war against Spain, so he called Parliament ◦ In a war with Spain because the princess said no to marrying Charles I (stupid reason) ◦ It take money to fight the war but parliament does not trust Charles however they want to go to war with the Catholics ◦ Parliament made Charles I to sign the Petition of Right ꜗ All taxes should go to parliament ꜗ No one can loan him money ꜗ He can’t send anyone to prison ꜗ Everyone has the right to a trial  He signed it but he broke the laws right after o 1629-1640 The Eleven Years Tyranny  Four incidents turned public opinion against Charles 1 during the Eleven Years Tyranny: 1. Ship Money Tax- inland counties should be paying taxes to help support the Navy, Parliament says it’s a new tax (saying he lied in the petition of rights- said he can’t inforce new tax laws) and Charles says it’s an old tax on new people 2. Archbishop Laud- 3. John Eliot- was in parliament and criticized him so Charles put him in jail but there was never a charge, trial, or jury so this again goes against the Petition of Right 4. Anglican Prayerbook- King decided that everyone was going to be Anglican (High Church Anglican- the closer you are to Catholicism the more high church you are) colors are allowed, gold and silver, stain glass in churches, prescribed prayers (similar to Catholic prayers) ꜗ People rebel because it is too close to Catholicism- they are all anti pope ꜗ There is a war about to break out- has to go to parliament for money to fight a war o In 1638 Scottish Presbyterians rebelled  Charles was forced to call a Parliament- because he was in need of money- 11 years there had been no Parliament so he makes an announcement for people to be elected to parliament- he needed money to fight the Scotts- but the last time they gave him money he lied to them- they said no so he fired all of them  1640: The Short Parliament- dissolved Parliament that he just hired 2 weeks ago because they refused to give him money  Later that year: The Long Parliament- another election takes place so new people will be elected however the same people get elected (people who vote are the people of England and they hate Charles) – last for 20 years- he asks them for money and they still say no  He want to arrest the people in the parliament but they had fled because they knew he was going to kill them  This is the final straw (king cannot arrest parliament for speaking their mind) so a civil war breaks out o 1642- The English Civil War started  Phase 1- king vs. Parliament  Also known as- Cavaliers (not puritans) vs. Roundheads (Puritans/Calvinists)(they wear wigs- that’s where the name comes from)  Oliver Cromwell is the head Roundhead and the leading member of Parliament  He formed the New Model Army and dominated the Civil War  (He had no military experience but is the one who comes up with training manuals- people study his tacks to this day)  Phase II (1645-1646) Parliament vs. Parliament’s Army  Parliament tried to take over and convert everyone to be Puritan  Cromwell persuades Parliament to not inforce Puritanism  He believes in religious toleration (independent) (he doesn’t think Catholics to worship but he is fine with Jews, Quakers….)  Parliament does not like that Cromwell is opposing them- but Cromwell still controls the army and parliament has not defense  Anyone who disagrees with Cromwell is thrown out (went from 600 members to 60)  Cromwell is not in the bloodline to become king- starts to negotiate Charles I to be a king with lesser power  The Rump?  Phase III (1648)- Cromwell vs. Everybody else  King  Cavaliers  Irish  Scots  Purged members of Parliament  Even some Puritans  BUT Cromwell still wins  Cromwell finds out that Charles I is working against him  Charles I is the first king to be executed  He was a failure, but was he a Machiavellian? Is this an example of Machiavelli being right or wrong? Was Charles I a traitor? ꜗ He was a failure and he did not act in interest of his country ꜗ If this is an example of Machiavelli it is not a good one- he was hated, misplaced loyalty, married a Catholic   Interregnum- there is no king/ period between kings, there is only Cromwell ꜗ 1653-1660 was known as the Protectorate period ꜗ England was divided into 12 military districts – each one was headed by a general from the New Model Army, called a Protector (they were also known as “Godly Governors”). ꜗ Cromwell was the Lord Protector  No beer  No gambling ꜗ He ruled England under Martial Law until his death in 1658 ꜗ How to evaluate Cromwell? ꜗ Was Oliver Cromwell good for England? England was a boring place and most people did not like the “Puritan laws.” ꜗ You could worship how you saw fit, but ale houses were still closed, public dancing was banned (Maypole), gambling was outlawed. On the other hand, England was more tolerant than it had been before or after and Cromwell turned England into a naval power. He also taught the country what could happen to a king who overstepped his authority. ꜗ


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