Notes Part 2
Notes Part 2 Com 295 - 03
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly McGeeney on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Com 295 - 03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Seiler in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Communication Theory in Journalism and Mass Communications at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
iii Church and State Eeudalism the Economic Political and Social Structure of the Middle ages in Europe the need for protection because of the barbarians Is characterized by D Weak central government I Rigid Class Structure I Life on the Manor the manorial System By 1000 the barbarians mix with the people of the roman empire Western Omelet I Different groups of people mixing together to make up a culture 1 Christian Culture 2 Germanic Culture 3 Greek Roman Culture D What are the differences of these cultures How do they mesh together I Humanistic god centered survival of the ttest D Europeans going to struggle to get along with one another because of their different cultures and view points Example Hypothetica D Can t affectively control trade so you would divide the territory into chunks of land ef I The king would give a ef to a Noble and in return the noble would provide military D The Nobles still can t control so they will divide land into smaller ef D If they were attacked by a foreign country the kings would call on nobles to use their army D However there was no loyalty nobles try to make a better deal the king can t the nobles and trust them to follow his because they are in control of the army D Peasants are in poverty so the others practice war and not need to farm I In theory everyone would obey the superior D Weak central government because vassals and lords are in control of people that are under them local lord is more respected D No trade between manorsthe farms people farm on selfsufficient did not need the help of others The most powerful leaders are within the Catholic Church a Social Concept of eternity think about example of movie that begins with the big bang and ends with today we are only the last 2 minutes Your job is to be good in life so you can go to heaven Vessels Lords Vessels lords Peasants Serfs Round one 1075 El El El El Roman Catholic Church control education Sacraments key to salvation the things people must do if they want to go to heaven church is still in control 0 Baptism and Eucharist or mass communion every day of holy obligation must do these to get to heaven 0 Sacraments are a miracle you are bringing God s grace into you Built cathedrals to be so big that you realize how small you are Gods power Political Excommunication power the pope has to kick someone out of the church sending them to hell would have control over Kings because they don t want to go to hell or have the nobles overthrow them Interdict kick the entire country out of the church Cardinals and archbishops are both appointed by the Pope Economical I Tithe 110th of their income goes to the church every year Church lands owns 1520 of the land Archbishop Cardinals Bishops Priests Pope Gregory VII Vs Henry IV Holy Roman Empire This con ict was known as the Investiture Controversy archbishop of Milan Pope excommunicates Henry IV nobles want to take some of Henry s land when her realizes he is wrong begs to be let into the church outside of the Popes home Let s henry back in the church but the pope is still the most powerful quotGo to Canossa term used to explain this The pope wins Round two 1215 El El El El Pope Innocent III vs King John England Both wanted to claim the right to appoint the archbishop of Canterbury The church goes on strike when it doesn t get its way Nobles overtook King John The pope wins Magna Carta great charter Crusades El El El Greatest illustration of the churches power is the Crusades Eirst launched by Pope Urban II in 1096 Marched thousands of people into lands that they want to control example of the power of the church Pope tells them to go They lose Abbasid Caliphate Between the years 1000 and 1300 in Europe Towns Trade 0 Kings love because it brought wealth into the country Use of money 0 Kings loved this Moneypower Bourgeoisie town dweller aka burghers 0 Kings loved this development because there is more wealth in the country and for them can tax which creates army s the kings want more power than the lords 0 the king loved bourgeoisie because he can tax him 0 they also like the kings because they are the protection from other lords 0 people liked the kings over the nobles the kings offer protection good for business natural allies against nobles o kings get used to the idea What caused this 0 Eeudalism had done its job the need for protection 0 By 1000 there was no place for armies to storm and the people are now settled and became the people of Europe Round three 1305 El El El Pope Boniface VIII vs Philip IV France Struggled with taxing the church King of France is getting ready for a war and so is the king of England 100 year war Keep taxing the church has the most money so the kings wanted to tax the church When the pope hears about this he makes an announcement saying that the kings of countries cannot collect taxes from the church or the church officials King of England does not respond to the Pope continues to collect taxes King of France responds to the Pope saying he will tax whomever he wants and he can t tell the king what to do The Pope retaliates and excommunicates Philip He raises an army to go arrest the Pope The Pope ees Rome and dies 3 weeks later 0 Philip realizes that they need to choose the next Pope and because his army is already in Rome they can rig the election 0 A French Pope is elected New Pope declares he is not safe in Rome so moves the capital to Avignon Erance so the French king can protect him 0 New Pope makes sure that the next Pope is also Erench appointed more Erench cardinals For over 70 years the Capital of the Roman Catholic church is in Avignon known as the Avignon Exile The king Philip IV won how could there be such a shift in power from Popeleing 0 Shows how powerful the Kings became with the buildup of towns money trade and bourgeois Gregory XI 1377 wants to move the capital back to Rome but dies a few months after 1378 cardinals come together to elect a new Pope o The people of Rome are angry so the cardinals are concerned with starting a riot if they elect another French Pope so they elect an Italian Pope go back to Avignon and do a reelection 0 Elect a French Pope and the Italian Pope starts to excommunicate each other and their followers This is known as the Great Schism split of the church 1 3781 4 1 1 Try to reelect another Pope 3r01 Pope Council of Constance in 1414 a council of leading church officials get together to nd a compromise Great Schism came to an end Elect a 4th Pope that will stay in Rome Damage because of these con icts in the church D People are confused question their belief in the church D Upset because everyone got excommunicated D Goes against the bible D Church looks like a failing institution not Gods institution Has to do with power and not God D D Iohn Wycliffe 13201384 England Raised the question that maybe the church is failed don t need the church to go to heaven only need to be a good person He gains followers Jan Hus aka John Huss Bohemia born in 1369 agrees with Wycliffe In 1415 after ending the Great Schism Hus was called before the council of Constance because he was challenging their views Want to talk to him promise him safety but they arrest him and burn him at the stake for being a disbeliever But he had followers and there were wars because of this Many people were killed who followed him but the idea does not die with them In 1428 they dig up John Wycliffe body and burn it at the stake I Ask Why 0 Compare western Europe to other regions of the world in 1000 would not look like it had any potential to be the most powerful place in the world 0 Compare western Europe to any of the other powerful regions of the world in the 1400 s and I was the least uni ed Sailed across world 1492 powerful army government able to produce culture Credit to town trade money and bourgeoisie But they did not have Caesaropapism It is when the religious leader and king are the same This leads to the separation of church and state because people could not shut down both the political leader and the religious leader that made them stronger and more powerful iv Renaissance French term that means quotrebirthquot However that is not the best de nition because rebirth means that something happened over night but it gradually happened overtime U Humanism 0 Put humans at the center of attention not God centered 0 Glori cation of humanity 0 The idea philosophy that asserts that this life is worth living for its own sake D Can also be de ned as The admiration and emulation of ancient Greek and Roman culture Liked that is was humanistic opposite of what the church is teaching A Art D Humanistic vs more God and heaven like URaphael is realistic eye contact depth linear DersDective and atmotheric persDective Secularization of religion make it about Mary and children but also about this world mother beauty all to make it humanistic D Older paintings next world depiction perfection gold Petrarch 13041374 I Love Letters to Laura Humanistic earthly love Boccaccio 13131375 I The Decameron by Boccaccio quotthe rst prose masterpiece in the Italian language Written in Italian but it s more important that it was written in the vernacular meaning the language of the people no longer written in Latin language of the church bible Written in 1348 style seemed modern making fun of the divine comedy Feminist style and theme equality that was not common during this time Challenged marriage taking on the sacraments Shakespeare s in uence was Boccaccio More art D Giotto the Lamentation See for the rst time a blue background not gold Creating a humanistic tone Gave his characters bulk drama story feelings D Masaccio The Holy Trinity Revolutionary painting Humanistic setting anatomy architecture linear perspective D Masaccio The Tribute Money Notice the Contrapposto stance meaning weight shift bringing realism think about human quality of stance and life Demonstrates balance think about Castiglione story 0 Renaissance person has balance and is good at everything I Donatello David Doing in sculpture what Masaccio was doing in painting Stance nude emotion smug Standing on Goliath s head E MAIN IDEA Renaissance art is humanistic B Architecture Admiration and emulation of Greek and Roman culture D Roman arch Greek and Roman pillars I Brunelleschi Duomo Roman Dome Started during the middle ages but nished during the Renaissance Artists and architects needed to know their math and science to be able to support and create a dome 0 Vaulting was used to help hold up the building 0 Everything was symmetrical striving for balance 0 This idea of balance and symmetry are both humanistic Botticelli painted the birth of Venus I He glori ed the human body D Venus was the Roman goddess of love I Showing the rebirth of Roman culture through the birth of love Allegory for the Renaissance this thought came later Raphael The School of Athens I Roman arches D Posed thoughtfully I Linear Perspective D Plato and Aristotle are at the center humanistic Last supper D Jesus at the center D You know what time the painting is happening El El El El El El El El El El El When Jesus says one of them will betray them and in two days he is going to die Still humanistic halo linear perspective In the other painting you can t tell what is happening or any emotions Michelangelo The Creation of Man Heaven is like the brain of the universe Famous statue David similar to Donatello Difference Age 0 Detail 0 Speci c moment in time when David is looking to Goliath to kill him Niccolo Machiavelli High renaissance from 14801520 Wrote The Prince in 1513 Intended to be the handbook for rulers and leaders All about power If you want to be a leader this is what you must understand Advice assumptions of human nature Be greedy but generous Both loved and feared but if you can t be both it s better to be feared Don t want to be hated Make the people happy He thinks humans are not trustworthy born naturally evil Page 4 and 6 Ungrateful ckle liars deceivers shun danger greedy Generous or miserly Religious or secular Need to be secular can t worry about the ten commandments Would be best to be secular but appear to be religious Appearances matter His assumption about human nature quotthe ends justify the means His end is power Cesare Borgia Prince of Mulan his army captured two cities during the Italian wars wanted law and order people will fear him by setting people to root the city but another army will come in and take over the thefts Machiavelli liked what he did Is Machiavelli s advice immoral 0 He claims that it is amoral don t question morality question power 0 Appear moral but don t have to be moral if you are getting power 0 Bible tells the way should be he tells it the way people are how the world is Machiavelli vs St Louis 0 St louis talks about morality and living in the way of God 0 Machiavelli is about power and living in a way to gain power Is Machiavelli a humanist Well not in the sense of Michelangelo s David meaning that he doesn t glorify humans But he is a humanist 0 Everything he does is to please the people and not to please God 0 This world based humans at the center of attention France Spain England becoming strong uni ed countries Italy needed to unify but they aren t vii Protestant Reformation Growing abuses of the church through the 15th century and into the 16th I Incelibacy I Simony sale of church positions to the highest bidder I Nepotism giving church positions to family members D Sales of Indulgences during confession priest will tell you that you can give money to the quotpoorquot to x their wrong doing they would give money to the priests Given paper saying your sins are forgiven for a price Can buy it for others parents who died you could pay for their sins to be forgiven People would go to the church in hopes to make money have power and prestige Notice abuses mentioned in the King reading Alexander VI 14921503 fathering at least six children and having prostitutes and mistresses running around the Vatican or Julius II 15031513 also known as the quotWarrior Pope for all of his wars who also fathered children and had a parade of mistresses Martin Luther D Luther s thunderstorm moment came in 1505 age 21 he was ordained in 1508 Put this guy on a pilgrimage to Rome in 1510 what does he see Rome is a dump prostitutes everywhere irreligious priests even priests who make fun of religious people B When he comes back to Germany and see the work of Johann Tetzel who sells indulgences I Archbishop of Mainz he had to pay money to the pope to get the position D On October 31 1517 Martin Luther posts the 95 theses on the door of the Wittenberg church does it on all saints day because everyone will see this All of them are about the churches wrong doings Challenges anyone to debate him on these He is taking on the catholic church 0 The Pope does nothing doesn t think he can do any harm Marin Luther s ninety ve thesis El El All have something to do with the sales of indulgences They became revolutionary but this is not how Luther sees himself he only wanted the church to change its way had no intention of leaving the church Pope does not have power to persuade God Pope can t insure your path to heaven Money can t change Gods authority God is where the power is not in any human being even the pope Give to the poor and needy not to the church How do we know what God wants through the bible the pope does not know any better than another person Challenges the Popes authority Main idea salvation by faith alone Salvation by faith alone Biblical authority God will save you if you believe in him Nothing in the bible says that you can buy your way into heaven or out of purgatory Essentially saying that you don t need any church pope priest or religious official I This leads to millions of people leaving the church Happened in Germany because Far from the Vatican Printing press More secular renaissance was bigger in Germany art life not as concerned with how to get to heaven Germans are more religious should be upset with all the money leaving Germany and going to Rome In 1519 Charles V was named Holy Roman Empire Most powerful man of his time He is also King of Spain and Holy Roman Empire he rules all of southern Italy and Sicily He is extremely rich making Spain rich and powerful He wants to talk to Martin Luther because he is getting in the way of him taking over and controlling more land 1521 the Diet of Worms was called Want to nd out if he is an outlaw In 1520 they excommunicated Martin Luther Charles V has Luther vs top catholic scholars See handout quothere I stand Saying that if it s not in the scriptures than he won t accept it The church responses was saying that not everyone should be able to read and interpret the bible in their own way quotbible as sole authority Luther thinks everyone should have individual interpretation of the bible not popes priests church councils or any church structures The church declares the Luther is an outlaw and if he is caught again he will be killed Frederick the Wise of Saxony will protect Luther he has his own castle and army Junker George Luther s new name and he translates the bible into D He keeps the ideas of sacraments to two D Only two that are important baptism and communionmassEucharist because they are the only two in the bible BUT they don t help you get to heaven D Clergy have no special or mysterious powers D Consubstantiation not transubstantiation changing of the bread and wine into the body and body ofJesus Luther does not believe that this change happens but he believes that God is there during mass but not because of a priests doing Is Luther a Humanist D He is not a humanist there is too much emphasis on the afterlife not this world focused God is at the center of attention focus on the bible I In summary 0 Luther was successful because quotback to basics movement Politics in Germany Printing Press 0 Appeal of Lutheranism to The Nobility people who control land have their own armies nobles see Charles V as their enemy because the nobles will lose power in their land if he takes over Luther promises them the church land converting to Lutheranism means no tithe and more land for them The Bourgeoisie like to be selfemployed Lutheranism said that your faith was individual and your faith was on your own this is something people liked The Peasantry this is 90 of the population they don t know how to read and write but they look at Luther s movement monk taking on catholic church and wins success story for the quotlittlequot guy as a way to over throw oppressive authority interpret the bible as Jesus a poor guy quotlike them 0 A peasant rebellion breaks out in 1524 inspired by Lutheranism but Luther disagreed with them his movement is not about bettering your life in this world but it is about bettering your life in heaven 0 They argue that they were allowed to interpret the bible in their own way Luther did not like what they were doing so the nobles take on the Peasants 0 100 thousand peasants died Continue on Protestant Reformation Schmalkaldic League nobles Alliance of German Protestant Lutheran prices against Charles V I The War of the Schmalkaldic League was the rst round in the Wars of Religion In this case the two sides could be seen as D Charles V vs the Schmalkaldic League Or D Catholics vs Protestants Francis I 15151547 H Catholic France led by Catholic Francis I of France supported Protestants in Germany AGAINST Charles V Great who is also Catholic 0 Example of political nature of the Wars of Religion Thinks of it ghting against Charles not a fellow catholic D He does it for 0 Power 0 Fear The Wars on Religion can be viewed I Religiously as Protestants vs Catholics I Or politically as Emperor vs Nobility I Or internationally as Habsburgs vs Everyone else In 1555 the War of the Schmalkaldic League ended with the Peace of Augsburg temporarily ending the Wars of Religion in Germany B Each prince was given the right to determine the religion either Lutheranism or Catholicism in his region 0 People have 3 choices convert move or don t make it known you aren t following the same religion Winners and Losers in the rst round of the Wars on Religion I Winners Nobles Lutherans Protestants I Losers Charles V Catholics Is this a victory for freedom of religion 0 No for the people but yes for the Princes because they get to pick a religion 0 Small step forward towards the freedom of religion D John Calvin 15091564 Famous for Institutes of the Christian Religion he puts forth the concept of predestination Predestination God has a plan for you and it does not deviate from that because God is all powerful and all knowing 0 Would you expect it to be more lenient or strict 0 Much stricter because the catholic church and Luther had nothing against alcohol working on Sunday bright colored clothes but Calvinism had a problem with all of these 0 Would you expect it to spread very far or very fast 0 You would not expect it to but it DID o In Scotland they are known as Presbyterians in England they were known as Puritans Erance known as Huguenots Neverland s Dutch Reformed Church also known as Calvinism Area of Belief Doctrine of the Luther s Belief Calvin s Belief Church How is a Christian Sacraments and What does the Nothing you can able to reach good works bible say faith do predestination salvation giving money to allow the poor helping fellow man Should a Christian No Yes Yes read and interpret the Bible What powers Preform miracles None None are to be held on Sundays by the Clergy What should be No No the proper use of relics and images What should be No No the proper authority of the Pope Some Lutherans will use a cruci x no Calvinists ever would Lutherans and Calvinists are both opposed to relics although Anglicans will use them Anglicans will use incense Lutherans less so and Calvinists not at all No statues of Mary in a Protestant Church The Lutheran and Anglican Churches have bishops Calvinists don t Origins of Anglicanism Henry VII rst of the Tudor monarchs I very Machiavellian all about power I Wanted to make an alliance with other powerful countries aka Spain at the time D The way you make an alliance to have your kid marry their kid In 1501 Arthur marries Catherine of Aragon Henry married Catherine of Aragon his brother s widow and in q509 took the throne as Henry VIII 15091547 H Did not consummate the marriage I Arthur dies before they could consummate it His younger son Henry married Catherine of Aragon his brother s widow Had to go to the pope for it to not be considered insect In 1527 Henry VII and Catherine can t have any more kids they only have daughters and he wants a son He wants to marry his mistress he can t get divorced without consent of the Pope Thomas Cromwell came up with an idea to bring all of England out of the Catholic Church by becoming protestant still all about power What he gets take over all church lands wealth no one will may tithe to Rome it will stay in the country 1534 Act of Supremacy This act of parliament made the monarch of England henry and all future monarchs head of the church of England Interesting that he did it through parliament they represent the people so the people will go along with the idea to leave the catholic church Question the King changed everyone s religion why was there no revolution or objection D To the average person the change was not noticeable it was very similar to the catholic church but without the pope D Some people objected were killed only a few people died to get the message Catholic Reformation known by protestants as the quotCounterReformation Decided they needed to do something about people leaving the church and the corruptness of the church Council of Trent 15451563 Council of Trent on Doctrine to x thought on sacraments and other doctrines but nothing was really changed in the mind of the protestants conservative Council of Trent on Reform Priests getting married sale of indulgences resolve these issues liberal The reason it took them a while to make a council because the last time they had a council was the Council of Constance when the council red popes Is the council more powerful than the pope This is why popes did not want to call in a council to tell them what to do England in the 17th Century 16031688 0 Two issues 1 Political issue King vs Parliament divine right principle vs representative principle 2 Religious issue Anglicanism vs Puritanism Calvinists 0 James I 16031625 First of the Stuart Monarchs 0 True Law of Free Monarchy book he wrote 0 Speech by James I to parliament D James thinks that a free monarchy means he can do whatever he wants get rid of parliament have more power he is free not people from limitations except from God l Thinks that God made him king D Parliament had the quotPower of the Purse This is known as Divine Right Monarchy if anyone questions it than they would be questioning Gods decision to make him king and have him in control Puritans quotpurifyquot the Anglican Church no quotpoperyquot 0 Puritans hate that there is a pope Puritans purif calVlI StS the Anglican Church 0 Essentially they hate Catholics 0 quotpopervquot King 39 0 CatholicsD Anglicansl Lutherans D Calvinists this is how far away Puritans are from Amhbnsmps Catholics Bishops Puritans went to the King and the king said bishop no king 0 Charles I 16251649 Charles wanted to make an alliance with Spain They were going to do this through King No Bishop No Kin IlO Priests People the Congregation marriage The Puritan Church on the other hand was oranized from the bot om I Parliament does not want them to marry uthe eole would choose their own minister because this will affect the who country politically and religiously Because she is catholic the Spanish princes instead he marries a French women who is also Catholic but they are Anglican Charles I needed money as soon as he came to power to ght a war against Spain so he called Parliament 0 In a war with Spain because the princess said no to marrying Charles I stupid reason 0 It take money to ght the war but parliament does not trust Charles however they want to go to war with the Catholics 0 Parliament made Charles I to sign the Petition of Right D All taxes should go to parliament D No one can loan him money D He can t send anyone to prison D Everyone has the right to a trial He signed it but he broke the laws right after 0 16291640 The Eleven Years Tyranny Eour incidents turned public opinion against Charles 1 during the Eleven Years Tyranny 1 Ship Money Tax inland counties should be paying taxes to help support the Navy Parliament says it s a new tax saying he lied in the petition of rights said he can t inforce new tax laws and Charles says it s an old tax on new people 2 Archbishop Laud 3 John Eliot was in parliament and criticized him so Charles put him in jail but there was never a charge trial or jury so this again goes against the Petition of Right 4 Anglican Prayerbook King decided that everyone was going to be Anglican High Church Anglican the closer you are to Catholicism the more high church you are colors are allowed gold and silver stain glass in churches prescribed prayers similar to Catholic prayers O D People rebel because it is too close to Catholicism they are all anti pope D There is a war about to break out has to go to parliament for money to ght a war In 1638 Scottish Presbyterians rebelled Charles was forced to call a Parliament because he was in need of money 1 1 years there had been no Parliament so he makes an announcement for people to be elected to parliament he needed money to ght the Scotts but the last time they gave him money he lied to them they said no so he red all of them 1640 The Short Parliament dissolved Parliament that he just hired 2 weeks ago because they refused to give him money Later that year The Long Parliament another election takes place so new people will be elected however the same people get elected people who vote are the people of England and they hate Charles last for 20 years he asks them for money and they still say no D He want to arrest the people in the parliament but they had ed because they knew he was going to kill them D This is the nal straw king cannot arrest parliament for speaking their mind so a civil war breaks out o 1642 The English Civil War started Phase 1 king vs Parliament Also known as Cavaliers not puritans vs Roundheads PuritansCalviniststhey wear wigs that s where the name comes from I Oliver Cromwell is the head Roundhead and the leading member of Parliament D He formed the New Model Army and dominated the Civil War I He had no military experience but is the one who comes up with training manuals people study his tacks to this day Phase II 16451646 Parliament vs Parliament s Army I Parliament tried to take over and convert everyone to be Puritan D Cromwell persuades Parliament to not inforce Puritanism He believes in religious toleration independent he doesn t think Catholics to worship but he is ne with Jews Quakers I Parliament does not like that Cromwell is opposing them but Cromwell still controls the army and parliament has not defense I Anyone who disagrees with Cromwell is thrown out went from 600 members to 60 I Cromwell is not in the bloodline to become king starts to negotiate Charles I to be a king with lesser power I The Rump Phase III 1648 Cromwell vs Everybody else D King D Cavaliers U Irish D Scots El El El Purged members of Parliament Even some Puritans BUT Cromwell still wins Cromwell nds out that Charles I is working against him Charles I is the rst king to be executed He was a failure but was he a Machiavellian Is this an example of Machiavelli being right or wrong Was Charles I a traitor D He was a failure and he did not act in interest of his country D If this is an example of Machiavelli it is not a good one he was hated misplaced loyalty married a Catholic EB 40 42 11 tea is Tyre n my Civil IE I izabe thi II J ames ll iuer Emmw IIII Elliarles lllmtezrregnum The period from 16353 to 15513 was also known as the P IFD IIE39E IIID rate 0 Interregnum there is no king period between kings there is only Cromwell D 16531660 was known as the Protectorate period D England was divided into 12 military districts each one was headed by a general from the New Model Army called a Protector they were also known as quotGodly Governors D Cromwell was the Lord Protector No beer No gambling l He ruled England under Martial Law until his death in 1658 D How to evaluate Cromwell l Was Oliver Cromwell good for England England was a boring place and most people did not like the quotPuritan laws D You could worship how you saw t but ale houses were still closed public dancing was banned Maypole gambling was outlawed On the other hand England was more tolerant than it had been before or after and Cromwell turned England into a naval power He also taught the country what could happen to a king who overstepped his authority
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