ANEQ 328 Fondations In Animal Genetics Week Three Notes
ANEQ 328 Fondations In Animal Genetics Week Three Notes ANEQ328-001
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Nella Weber III
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Destinee on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANEQ328-001 at Colorado State University taught by Milton Thomas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Foundation in Animal Genetics in Animal Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Three 2/2/16(Snow Day-No Class)-2/4/16 Introduction to the Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA Cytology and DNA o All of these following organelles contain DNA within them. Nucleus DNA is stored in the nucleus in the form of chromatin. Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis. Ribosomal DNA contains the “blueprint” for rRNA. Mitochondrial DNA Site of cellular respiration. The DNA from mother/dam is located here as well. DNA Characteristics 1.) DNA has the ability to accurately replicate through the use of DNA polymerase. 2.) DNA is very stable and doesn’t degrade as quickly as RNA. 3.) DNA can contain many variation of genes. o Although DNA can vary from people to people and species to species many gene sequences are preserved within one’s species. Homology The similarity in the sequences of proteins within organisms. Ex. The majority of mammals have the same protein that code for hair. The growth hormone gene is 99% similar in both the cows and sheep genome. 4.) DNA pays a major role in the central dogma (DNARNAProtein) and in heritance. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Three 2/2/16(Snow Day-No Class)-2/4/16 Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA Deoxyribose Acid (DNA) o Discovered by Watson and Crick in 1953 through the use of discussions and unpublished work. Components of DNA and RNA o DNA (Deoxyribose Acid) Components Located in the nucleus and mitochondria. Chemical Make Up of DNA Double Stranded Stable Phosphate Group Sugar Deoxyribose (Meaning without alcohol (OH) base). Nitrogen Bases Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine o RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) Components Located outside the nucleus (cytoplasm) and near ribosomes. Transcribed from DNA sequences within the nucleus. Uses the nitrogen base Uracil instead of Thymine. Uracil is the unmethylated form of Thymine. The use of uracil is the reason for RNA’s instability. RNA polymerase is used to transcribe DNA into RNA. Chemical Make Up of RNA Single Stranded Unstable Phosphate Group Sugar Ribose (Meaning with alcohol (OH) base). Nitrogen Bases Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine o Different RNA Forms Messenger RNA (mRNA) Contains the blueprint (genetic information) needed to synthesize proteins. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Three 2/2/16(Snow Day-No Class)-2/4/16 Transfer RNA (tRNA) Transfers amino acids to ribosomes for protein synthesis. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Links amino acids together to form proteins. Non-Coding RNA, snRNA, siRNA, miRNA Destroys/modifies RNA that codes for proteins. Purines and Pyrimidines o The nitrogen bases (base pairs) that make up DNA and RNA can be divided into two groups: purines and pyrimidines. Purines Consists of the base pairs Guanine, Adenine, and Steroids. Made up of a double ring structure. Pyrimidines Consist of the base pairs Thymine, Cytosine, and Uracil. Made up of a single ring structure. Chargaff’s Rules o Purines (Adenine and Guanine) always bind with Pyrimidines (Thymine and Cytosine). Adenine (A) always pairs with Thymine (T) and are held together by 2 hydrogen bonds. Guanine (G) always pairs with Cytosine (C) and are held together by 3 hydrogen bonds. Therefore there will always be an equal amount of A’s and T’s and G’s and C’s with a DNA sequence. Ex. A particular DNA strand contains 30% Thymine, what is the percentage of the amount of Cytosine in the DNA strand? Answer Explanation: Since there are the same amount of Thymine and Adenine in a DNA strand, the DNA strand must also be made up of 30% Adenine’s as well. So both Thymine and Adenine make up 60% of the DNA strand. So that means Guanine and Cytosine must both make up the remaining 40% of the DNA strand. So divide the 40% by two, (since the number of Cytosine’s must also be equal to the number of Guanines.) Thus, Guanine makes up 20% of the DNA strand and Cytosine makes up the other 20% of the DNA strand. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Three 2/2/16(Snow Day-No Class)-2/4/16 The Double Helix Structure of DNA o Composed of a phosphate-deoxyribose backbone and the base pairs: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine (which are held together by hydrogen bonds). o Composed of complementary anti-parallel strands. 5’-3’ Complementary Strand (Sense) 3’-5’ Template Strand (Anti-Sense) 5’-ATGCTTGCCCTA-3’ (sense = complementary) 3’-TACGAACGGGAT-5’ (anti-sense = template) DNA Extraction o DNA can be extracted in many ways. Blood Test Uses the DNA found in white blood cells since they possess a nucleus. Blood cells do not have a nucleus. Hair Root Sample DNA is found at the root tip of hair. DNA Packaging and Histones o During DNA replication, DNA condenses from “loosely packed” chromatin into densely packed chromosomes. The double helix DNA strand wraps around a protein called histone to form what is called a nucleosome. Differences in the number of base pairs on a histone protein can result in epigenetic changes. Nucleosomes then coil upon themselves to form a more packed DNA structure called chromatin. Chromatin then too coils on itself to form two sister chromatids also known as chromosomes. Epigenetics o The study of changes that occur in the base pairs (gene expression) due to the addition of a methyl (CH 3 group or through histone modification as a result of environmental processes and embryo modification. DNA Methylation Occurs when methyl marks are added to DNA base pairs (most commonly cytosine) leading to the repression of gene expression. Histone Modification When additional molecules attach to histones, affecting the way DNA is wrapped around them. o When epigenetic traits are inherited from the dam/sire to progeny it’s called Genetic Imprinting. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Three 2/2/16(Snow Day-No Class)-2/4/16 Epigenetics In Livestock o Epigenetics is responsible for the coat color differences in cloned (nuclear transfer) livestock animals, large calf syndrome, and imprinting syndrome.
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