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Bio 1009 Lecture Notes

by: veronicaturtu

Bio 1009 Lecture Notes bio 1009

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Detailed lecture notes in prep for the quizzes and midterm
General biology
Class Notes
biology lecture notes detailed organized
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by veronicaturtu on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to bio 1009 at University of Minnesota taught by Cheryl in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General biology in Biology at University of Minnesota.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Lecture #5 2.2.2016 Eukaryotic Animal Cell  Nucleus—difference between plant and animals is that genetic material is contained within the nucleus and the DNA is compacted o Loosely packed = chromatin o RNA is made in the nucleolus o Nuclear envelop is near the rough ER o RNA comes out pores of the nucleus  Ribosome (see picture on slide)—transfer RNA brings specific ribosome (3 types of RNA)  mRNA comes out of nucleus into cytoplasm and bind with free ribosome or ribosomes associated with rough RNA and polypeptide is made and encapsulated in a transport vesicle  Golgi apparatus o Cis side and trans side o From rough ER to cis side o Vesicle travels through to the other side and is modified along the way o Becomes a glycoprotein and addition of sugars marks protein for ultimate destination  Can form lysosomes which can form hydrolytic vesicle that can perform hydrolysis (break down damaged organelles or food vacuole break down) (NOT IN PLANTS)  Vacuoles o Present in plants and can take place of the lysosomes o Can storage things such as chemicals o Ex. Open and close to expel water (contractile) Endomembrane system  Nuclear envelop  ER (smooth and rough)  Golgi apparatus- modify and sorting  Lysosomes- vesicles of digestive enzymes  Vacuoles- storage containers  Plasma membrane  Synthesize and modify polypetides NOT PART OF SYSTEM  Peroxisomes- detoxes, break things down such as storage that needs to be used  Mitochondrion- involved in cellular respiration (ATP), spaced between inner and outer membrane, houses fluid called matrix that contains ribosomes and plasmids that has specific genes (both plant and animal)  Cytoskeleton components- give cell structure and allow for movement, hold certain structures to prevent movement o Microtubules- move things around, involved in mitosis and meiosis o Intermediate filaments- holds specific structures 1 o Microfilaments: actin- involved in movement, manner in which can move and how the organism can move, and moves cytoplasm around so all nutrients can reach cell  Extracellular matrix (animal)- lipid bilayer, gives cells shape and allows to attach to other things, allows for communication between inside and outside  Intercellular junctions (both)- interact with cells that are adjacent to it, pores for commination, types of junctions in animal cells and desmosomes ***animal cells don’t have large vacuole or chloroplast  Chloroplast- used in photosynthesis, double membrane, inner space is semi-solid liquid called stroma, has ribosomes and DNA o SEE COMPARISON SLIDE Lecture #6 2.4.2016 Viruses, Viroids, & Prions Viruses  Infectious particles consisting of a viral genome enclosed in a shell made of protein  Obligate intracellular parasites- inside a host  Have specific host range  Characterize by shape and components it’s made up of (Sphere, Rob, glycoproteins that are associated with it or have an envelope, can be more complex with head and tail) Virus- nucleic acid surrounded by protein capsid, DNA or RNA, few enzymes, and no metabolism (much simpler infectious organism) Cell- organic molecules surrounded by membrane, DNA and RNA, many enzymes; diverse functions, highly metabolic ***know general and specific reproductive cycles (See Slides) Phages (when integrated called a Prophage)  Double-stranded (ds) DNA genome  Infects bacterial cells  2 types based on their reproductive cycle: o Virulent Phage – Lytic Cycle o Temperate Phage—Lytic and Lysogenic Cycle Infection of animal cells  Have envelop that has glycoprotein on it which is recognized by the host as “itself” and it is taken in by the cell  Uses the host  Can be completed through endocytosis because the host engulfs it 2 Retrovirus  Has envelop with glycoprotein, two RNA strains, enzyme, capsule  Envelop fuses with host membrane which releases the RNA, then the reverse transcriptase can change the single RNA to double DNA which can enter the nucleus and integrate with host DNA and becomes a provirus Protection against animal viral pathogens  Variolation—inoculation of healthy individuals with material from an infected person  Vaccination—antigen that stimulates the immune system against the pathogen  Vaccines—inactivated (killed) virus; live attenuated (weakened) viruses that have reduced virulence; purified viral components  Anti-viral drugs Plant viruses are characterized by the way they look; viruses are more difficult to be transmitted due to wax leaves (damage= chance/opening to get in), transmission by parent in asexual reproduction; viruses can be found in seeds where the embryo is infected Spread of infection- transferred through plasmodesmata which are pores between different types of cells Protection: natural protections systems; hypersensitive response, systemic acquired resistance Viroids Infectious particles that are just molecules (circular piece of RNA that affects plants because can be made in large amounts) Prions  Infectious proteins that causes a number of degenerative brain diseases in vertebrates  Long incubation period  Hard to destroy (high heat and pressure abilities)  Believed to come from eating brain material  Malformed shape has more beta pleated sheets  Norma protein and prion can for aggregates that cause damage  Cannot function outside a host Membranes and Transport Processes  Plasma membrane o Lipids (phospholipids and cholesterol) o Proteins o Carbs (glycoproteins and glycolipids)  Phospholipid bilayer- hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails o Movement is rapid laterally within the membrane o Fluidity is important to function for certain reactions, it is increased when there is unsaturated tails due to kinks, in saturated tails it is more viscous 3 o With cholesterol, it can reduce movement making it more viscous or add kinks to keep from getting solid Semipermeable membrane of the plasma membrane  Smaller molecules  Charged ions cannot go through  Non polar can pass (except water and it will take longer)  Protein is necessary for the larger molecules to pass; outside is nonpolar and inside is hydrophilic Functions of Proteins  Transport  Enzymatic activity  Signal transduction  Cell-cell recognition  Intercellular joining  Attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix Transport processes 1. Passive transport a. Diffusion—no energy needed b. Osmosis—water molecules are moving down the concentration gradient; tonicity (hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic); more solute particles = more hydration cells need to be formed i. Water balance of living cells (ex. red blood cells) 1. Hypotonic- water wants to move into cell 2. Isotonic- water moves in and out 3. Hypertonic- water moves out of cell c. High concentration to low d. Does not require energy because high accumulation powers 2. Protein mediated transport a. Facilitated passive transport b. Channel protein- travel through pore that goes from high to low concentration c. Carrier protein- more specific interaction for a particular molecule to be brought across (high to low) d. Active transport- energy is required because the molecule is moving against its concentration gradient i. Uniport- one way & hydrolysis of ATP (ADP + P) ii. Antiport- one is going up and one is going down that is powered by ATP 1. Sodium potassium pump- Na and K go against concentration gradient iii. Uniport coupled with a symport- powered by ATP; one uniport & one antiport; power on one side of the membrane e. Low concentration to high 3. Bulk transport a. Exocytosis b. Endocytosis 4 i. Phagocytosis ii. Pinocytosis iii. Receptor mediated endocytosis Transmembrane gradients  Chemical- the concentration of a molecule on two sides of a membrane are unequal  Electrical- the charge distribution on two sides of the membrane is unequal (membrane potential)  Electrochemical- the combined forces that drive diffusion of ions across the membrane 5


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