BIO 1101 NOTES: Weeks 1-4
BIO 1101 NOTES: Weeks 1-4 BIOLOGY 1101 (Evan Waletzko)
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie_ on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOLOGY 1101 (Evan Waletzko) at Ohio State University taught by Evan Waletzko in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology (BIO 1101, Evan Waletzko) in Biology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
BIOLOGY 1101 15989 Introduction to Biology Dr Evan J Waletzko The Ohio State University Notes by Sophie Chang Biology 1101 Notes Weeks 14 Week 1 Notes Science as a philosophy 0 A process through which we can gain a better understanding of the world around us 0 Science however is unlike other philosophies in that it is testable falsifiable and selfcorrecting Theory vs Hypothesis 0 A theory is a blanket statement or an explanation for a phenomenon or relationship of the natural world that has been extensively tested Can still be falsified O A hypothesis is developed through experimentation and conclusion The Scientific Method 0 Observe hypothesize prediction design experiment conduct experiment conclude review redesign O Experimentation 3 variables 39 Standardized variables the research tries to keep constant between all the treatments 39 Independent variable you manipulate or change to determine if it affects the outcome being tested x variable 39 Dependent variable measured as the outcome of the experiment or what is being affected by the experiment y variable Biological fitness 0 Survival which will allow the organism to leave the most copies of itself in future generations Correlation vs Causation 0 Correlation is not causation For example in Evan39s powerpoint the graph on slide 57 illustrates that the per capita consumption of mozzarella cheese is correlated connected to the number of civil engineering doctorates awarded The graph on slide 58 shows that the per capita cheese consumption correlates with the number of people who died by becoming tangled in their bedsheets Does that mean that the increase in PhD graduates caused people to die from becoming entangled in their bedsheets No does that mean that people dying from becoming entangled in their bedsheets caused more engineers to get their PhDs No Levels of Organization in Biology 0 Molecular Cellular Organ organ system Organism Population Community Ecosystem OOOOOO Week 2 Notes Chapter 2 Chemistry 0 Learning Objectives Describe what atoms are their structure and how they bond Understand water39s features that help it support all life Describe the structure and function of 39 Carbohydrates 39 Lipids 39 Proteins 39 Nucleic acids 0 Overall theme Molecular structure in uences the properties of the chemical Eg size shape polarity Main 4 elements in the human body 0 Oxygen 0 Carbon 0 Hydrogen O Nitrogen Properties of water that make it critical to life 0 Cohesion Hydrogen bonds make water cohesive 0 Large heat capacity 0 Low density as a solid 0 Good solvent Types of Macromolecules O Carbohydrates C H and 0 Primary fuel for organisms 39 Can be used as an energy source in the bloodstream 39 Can be stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver for later use 39 Can be converted to fat Most carbohydrates are ultimately converted into glucose a monosaccharide which is blood sugar Complex Carbohydrates are quottimereleasequot fuel pellets Not all digestible 39 Cellulose not digestible but aids in digestion because it contains fiber 39 Chitin 0 Proteins Essential dietary component for growth repair and replacement Amino acids are the building blocks for proteins 39 20 of them 17294 known gene codes for proteins 39 Each gene code can code for more than one protein Therefore there are a minimum of 17294 proteins in the human body Types of Proteins 39 Complete contain all essential amino acids 39 Incomplete do not contain all essential amino acids 39 Complementary incomplete proteins that when combined have all essential amino acids How to think of proteins 39 Plants make amino acids 39 Then they string them together to make proteins 39 When you digest a protein your body breaks it apart into individual amino acids again 39 To make your own proteins your cells string these amino acids back together in a new order Shape is important 39 Sequence determines shape 39 Shape determines properties 39 When shape is deformed protein cannot function 0 Nucleic acids Store info on how to build and run a body Examples 39 DNA Nucleotides Adenine A Guanine G Cytosine C Thymine T 39 RNA Singlestranded Nucleotides Adenine A Guanine G Cytosine C Uracil U instead of thymine T O Lipids Lipids do not follow the monosaccharidepolysaccharide relationship but the other three types of macromolecules do Store energy not for immediate usefor a rainy day Contain more stored energy than carbohydrate molecules Types 39 Saturated and unsaturated fats 39 Sterols Cholesterol Steroid hormones 39 Phospholipids Characteristics 39 Nonsoluble in water greasy to the touch 39 Functions Longterm energy storage Insulation Membrane formation Hormones Week 3 Notes Lecture 3 Cells 0 Learning Objectives Describe what a cell is and the two general types of cells Describe major differences between animal and plant cells Cell Theory and Endosymbiotic Theory Basic structure of membranes and their importance The cell 0 Smallest unit of life that can function independently and perform al the necessary functions of life including reproducing itself 0 Nearly all contain DNA 0 Discovered by Robert Hooke in the mid1600s when he was looking at cork Cell Theory 0 All living organisms are made up of one or more cells 0 All cells arise from other preeXisting cells Types of Cells 0 Prokaryotic no nucleus 0 Eukaryotic nucleus present Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Cells Singlecelled Single to multicelled Nucleus No Yes DNA located Middle of the cell In the nucleus in Noun Form Prokaryote Eukaryote Notes Structurally simple eXtremely If you can see it it39s a diverse eukaryote Prokaryotes Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Dna Ribosomes all cells that produce protein have ribosomes 0 Cell wall protects and gives shape to cell Basic Structure of Cells 0 Animal cells Have centrioles which aren39t in plant cells 0 Plant cells Chloroplast OOOO Cell wall Vacuole O In both animal and plant cells Nucleus Plasma membrane Ribosomes Mitochondria There are 2 organelles associated with energy in eurkaryotes O Chloroplast convert solar energy into chemical energy glucose Found in plant cells Plant cell39s energy collector converter 39 Site of photosynthesis Light gt chemical energy glucose 0 Mitochondria convert chemical energy glucose into another form of energy ATP Found in plant and animal cells Convert glucose to ATP Important 0 There are many forms of chemical energy but Evan said that we39re only considering glucose in this class 0 ATP is like a common currency but it can be used by all cells 0 Glucose cannot be used by all cells Endosymbiotic Theory 0 Explains presence of 2 organelles in eukaryotes chloroplasts in plants and mitochondria in plants and animals Double membranes Own DNA like bacteria Circular Week 4 Notes Chapter 4 Energy 0 Learning Objectives Potential vs kinetic energy How energy ows from the sun and through all life on Earth How photosynthesis uses energy from sunlight to make food How cellular respiration converts food molecules into ATP a universal source of energy 2 key processes 0 Photosynthesis 0 Cellular respiration Nearly all life depends on energy captured from the sun and converted into forms that living organisms can use Energy 0 The capacity to do work Work is moving matter against an opposing force Potential vs Kinetic 0 Potential energy is stored energy Types 39 Gravity gradient 39 Chemical bonds Chemical energy is a form of potential energy stored in chemical bonds All food has potential energy because the chemical energy stored in the chemical bonds in the food can be broken and the energy can be released during cellular respiration 39 Concentration gradient 0 Kinetic energy Energy of moving objects 39 Heat energy 39 Light energy Made up of photons like energy packets Thermodynamics 0 Study of the transformation of energy from one type to another 0 Laws First Law of Thermodynamics 39 Energy can never be created or destroyed 39 It can only change from one form to another Second Law of Thermodynamics 39 Every time energy is converted from one form to another the conversion isn39t perfectly efficient 39 Some of the energy is always converted to the least usable form of kinetic energy heat 0 Heat is useless to living organisms in performing work but it helps with homeostasis ATP is energy currency 0 Energy is stored in the bond between the phosphate groups 0 The potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy Electromagnetic Spectrum 0 Range of energy that is organized into waves of different lengths O The shorter the wavelength the higher the energy 0 The longer the wavelength the lower the energy Photosynthetic Pigments 0 Primary photosynthetic pigment is called chlorophyll a Chlorophyll a efficiently absorbs blueviolet and red wavelengths of light Can39t efficiently absorb green light Re ects the green back so that39s why we see them as green 0 Chlorophyll b Absorbs blue and redorange wavelengths Re ects back yellowgreen wavelengths O Carotenoids Absorbs blueviolet and bluegreen wavelengths Re ects yellow orange and red wavelengths Photosynthesis 0 Energy of sunlight is captured and stored as chemical energy 0 2 steps Light reactions photo ATP 39 Make ATP from sunlight Dark reactions synthesis Glucose 39 Make glucose from ATP 0 H20 C02 Light Energy gt 02 Glucose O 6H20 6C02 Light Energy gt 602 C6H1206 Cellular Respiration O 2 steps Glycolysis 39 Occurs in cytoplasm 39 All organisms 39 Produces some ATP 39 Universal energyreleasing pathway 39 Just need to know that there39s a net gain of ATP not exact numbers 39 Always the first thing organisms go through Krebs Cycle electron transport chain 39 Occurs in mitochondria 39 Produces waaaay more ATP than glycolysis 39 Needs oxygen 39 Most efficient method of producing ATP
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