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Course Themes - Notes

by: Brittany Dudukovich

Course Themes - Notes Bio 231

Marketplace > Western Kentucky University > Bio 231 > Course Themes Notes
Brittany Dudukovich
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Notes over Course Themes (this chapter will be on the next test)
Human anatomy and physiology
Dana F. Emberton-Tinius
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Dudukovich on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 231 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dana F. Emberton-Tinius in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Bio 231- Prof. Emberton-Tinius - Notes Course Themes General Course Themes: 1. Complimentary Principle 2. Structural Hierarchy 3. Inter-related Body Systems 4. Anatomical Variation 5. Homeostasis 6. Cell Stress 7. Cell Adaptation 8. Cellular Adaption to Stress 1. Complimentary Principle - Form and Function are interrelate  The shape of a structure determines its function  The function of a structure is determined by the shape - Humans have a “tube within tube” body system Examples: - Digestive system - Blood vessels 2. Structural Hierarchy - All living things are organized in the same way 1. chemicals (atoms) 2. cellular level 3. tissues 4. organs 5. organ systems 6. organism 3. Inter-relatedness of Body Systems - The idea that all systems in the body affect all other systems Examples: 1. Nervous and Endocrine systems “rule” all other systems 2. Every system depends on the cardiovascular system for O2, etc. 3. Immune system depends on cardiovascular system for transport 4. Urinary system filters blood, keeping nervous system operational 5. Reproductive system perpetuates all systems 4. Anatomical Variation - Not all organs in the human body are the same in everyone. Situs- The idea that we have a normal arrangement of organs. Left Right Heart Gallbladder Spleen Liver Appendix Situs inversus- Organs are not in the normal location, usually on opposite sides. 5. Homeostasis - The body’s ability to: 1. Detect change 2. Activates mechanisms that oppose it 3. Maintains relatively stable internal conditions *relatively constant: not precise but maintained within a range Example: body temperature 1. Negative Feedback System: (response) - Used to reverse initial stimulus - Most human body systems work this way Example: Enter cold environment, body responds to increase body temperature (shivers, diverting blood, goose bumps, etc.) 2. Positive Feedback System: - Enhances stimulus Example: childbirth…production of oxytocin from posterior pituitary Homeostatic Mechanisms 1. Receptors: provide information about a stimulus - Detect changes in environment - Change in pressure - Changes in temp - Change in chemical composition 2. Control center: (brain) - Interprets the information and makes a decision 3. Effector: structure that elicits the change - Example: organs or glands 6. Cell Stress 1. Intercellular spaces: space between cells - Also called extracellular or interstitial space 2. Intercellular fluid: fluid that bathes the cell, contains chemical ions Ca+, K+, Na+ or pressure - Also called extracellular or interstitial space a. At the cellular level, the cell responds to its environment b. The cell will have to accommodate stress. c. Stress is anything that disrupts homeostasis d. Cells will adjust back to their original “steady state” OR e. Sometimes cells will create a new “steady state” • Injury: occurs when the cell cannot adapt to stress: cell injury can be reversible or irreversible. 7. Adaptation 1. Physiological Adaptation: responses of cell to normal everyday stimulation. Examples: eating, sleeping, and exercise 2. Pathological Adaptation: Modulation or a change of the cell either structure or function to produce an injury. 8. Cellular Adaptation to Stress Atrophy: decrease in cell size, shrinkage due to loss of protein or nutrients. - causes of atrophy: sedentary lifestyle (lack of use) - can be reversible Hypertrophy: increase in cell size; because of increase of production of protein. - causes or reasons for hypertrophy: exercise (more use) - reversible Hyperplasia (Characteristics): - Hyperplasia: increase in cell number - Threshold with regard to the seriousness of the adaptive stress mechanism - More cells in the same area - All forms of hyperplasia are generally reversible Hyperplasia Subtypes: A. Compensatory Hyperplasia: -Def: Increase in cell division to compensate for some type of stress -Examples: epithelial cells building a callous to protect underlying tissues B. Hormonal Hyperplasia: -Def: Increase in cell division because of increased hormone signal -Results in an increase of cell numbers -Normal amount of hormones but numbers come and go -Examples: estrogen dependent tissues in the uterus, build up of uterine lining in menstrual cycle C. Pathological Hyperplasia: -Def: Disease state hyperplasia -These often involve hormones and are in estrogen- dependent tissues -Examples: overproduction of uterine lining (within the uterus) causing endometriosis Metaplasia: Def: More serious “genetic reprogramming of the cell” - Change of a highly specialized cell type into another mature cell type - Reversible Types of cells A. Stem cells: - Undifferentiated cell that does not have a specific function can develop into any cell type if given the right chemicals cues. - Development plasticity: during development stem cell can be molded and become another type of cell. - Toti-potent: (toti = all) ability to become ANY other cell type (embryonic early divisions) - Pleuri-potent: ability to become part of the embryo (after early divisions) -Multi-potent: can develop into more than one cell type- but more limited B. Adult stem cells and Cord Blood Stem cells: - undifferentiated, found throughout the body, replenish dying cells. - somatic stem cells (found in children and adults) Adult cells: - Those that are NOT stem cells - Have already chosen what they will become - Metaplasia happens to adult (mature cells) not stem cells - Happens when an adult cell type changes - Creates a more protective form Examples: In lungs: 1. PCCE -sweeps debris/warms air prior to the air entering the lungs. 2. Often people who are exposed to chemicals or irritants will experience metaplasia. 3. PCCE will change to stratified squamous epithelium (loss of cilia and goblet cells…no mucus present, which allows a buildup of particles that PCCE would have eliminated). 4. “Smokers cough” commonly develops with metaplasia. * Reversible with smoking cessation but can be an indicator for more serious things to come Dysplasia: - More serious then metaplasia - Cells become abnormal in size, shape, and organization - Hyperplasia and metaplasia can be involved - Abnormalities can be a sign of tumor development - Loss of control in the number of cells produced 3 Types of dysplasia: classified as I, II, III based on severity -Examples: abnormal pap smear Neoplasia: - NOT reversible - Tumor development - Neoplasm: “new growth” tumor - Abnormal mass tissue resulting I uncontrolled cell division Classified into 2 groups: - Benign neoplasm - Wicked Neoplasms Benign Neoplasm: - Slow growing - Very similar to parent tissue - Encapsulated by connective tissue sheath (fibroblasts) Wicked Neoplasms: - Rapid growth - Not similar to parent tissue - Aggressive angiogenesis (production of new blood vessels) - Needs a lot of blood supply - Not enclosed encapsulated b/c of rapid growth Metastasis: • Migration- of malignant cells through lymph, capillaries, and tissues to other areas of the body. • Lose contact inhibition- malignant cells grow through other cells and can grow into organs. • Competes- robs body of nutrients, resulting in weight loss.


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