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Cognitive Psychology - week 2 notes

by: Jessica Twehous

Cognitive Psychology - week 2 notes PSYCH 3140-02

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Psychlogy > PSYCH 3140-02 > Cognitive Psychology week 2 notes
Jessica Twehous
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Cognitive Psychology
Sanchita Gargya

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These notes are exactly from the week 2 lecture!
Cognitive Psychology
Sanchita Gargya
Class Notes
cognitive, Psychology




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Twehous on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3140-02 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Sanchita Gargya in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Chapter 1 Introduction to Cognitive Psychology What is Cognition o Cognition o In a general sense it is the study of how our mind processes information More specifically it is quotthose processes by which the sensory input is transformed reduced elaborated stored recovered and usedquot Introduction How do cognitive processes aid our thinking What elements does it constitute They transform information They reduce information They elaborate information They store and recover information They use information Key Processes involved in Cognition Perception Attention Memory Language Reasoning and Judgment Affect What is Cognitive Pyschology 0 Study of human cognition ie how people perceive learn remember and think about information o In general the scientific study of mental processes History of Cognitive Psychology Evolved from early philosophy 0 Rationalism reason as a source of knowledge orjustification o Plato o Rene Descartes Introspection o Empiricism acquire knowledge via empirical evidence 0 Aristotle 0 John Locke tabula rasa Major Historical Approaches o Structuralism18501900s o Donders Wundt Ebbinghaus o emphasizes the structures of our thought looking inward o Functionalism18901910s 0 James Dewery Carr 0 believed that real task was not to study structure but the function and purposeness o Behaviorism19131950s 0 Watson Pavlov Skinner o shouldn39t be thinking about the mind rejected introspection criticized functionalism because it wasn39t based on experiments looking outward 0 focus was on anything that was observable behavior stimulus response relationships 0 Cognitive Psychology 1950spresent o Chomsky Broadbent Miller Sperling o wanted to seek a synthesis of both of these methods 0 looking inward AND outward Wilhelm Wundt 1879 0 First psychology lab Univ of Leipzig Germany 0 Approach 0 Structuralism experience is determined by combining elements of experience called sensations 0 Method 0 Analytic introspection participants trained to describe experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli Franciscus Donders 1868 0 Was interested in studying how long it takes a person to make a decision o Reactiontime RT experiment 0 Measures interval between stimulus presentation and person39s response to stimulus I Simple RT task participant pushes a button quickly after a light appears I Choice RT task participant pushes one button if light is on right side another if light is on left side 0 Mental repsose cannot be measured driectly but can be inferred from the particpants behavior Hermann Ebbinghaus 1885 0 Was interested in determining the nature of memory and forgetting specifically how rapidly information that is learned is lost over time o Memorized a list of nonsense syllables o DAX QEH LUH ZIF 0 After variable delays he measured how long it took him to relearn the list 0 Measure used was called savings William James 1890 o Functionalism how does the mind function 0 First Psychology textbook 0 No experiments reported observations of his own experience 0 Proposed that memory has two stores 0 Immediate 0 Longterm Watson 0 Behaviorism he wanted psychology to be a science only observable evidence 0 Examined how pairing one stimulus with another affected behavior 0 Little Albert 9 month old became frightened by a rat after a loud noise was paired with every presentation of the rat 0 Classical conditioning 0 Pair a neutral event CS with an event US that naturally produces some outcome UR 0 After repeated pairings theh quotneutralquot event now also produces the outcome CR BF Skinner 1938 o Operant Conditioning studying relationship between stimulus and response shaped by rewards or punishment 0 Studied operant conditioning by conducting experiments using animals which he placed in a quotSkinner Boxquot 0 mice have to perform certain action and they receive food 0 REWARD is more effective than punishment 0 Critique 1 Human beings are considered black boxes nothing really goes on inside the black box anything happening within the black box is not important they have no idea what39s going on inside them Critique 2 Edward Chance Tolman 1939 0 Cognitive Maps 0 Maze used by Tolman rat intially explores the maze then learns to turn right to obtain food rat turns left to reach the food when its location was changed Critique 3 Noam Chomsky 1959 o Argued children do not only learn language through imitation and reinforcement 0 Children say things that are incorrect and cannot be imitating 0 Children say things they have never heard and have not been rewarded for 0 Language must be determined by an inborn biological program Cognitive Revolution Decade of 1950s 0 Shift from behaviorist stimulusresponse relationships to understanding the operation of the mind 0 Cognitive Psychology emerged as a field in an attempt to understand mental processes Influenced by 4 Research Areas Gestalt Psychology and Human Perception Human factors Computer simulation Cognitive Neuroscience Gestalt Psychology 0 quotThe whole is different than the sum of its parts 0 Gestalt psychologists seek to discover principles that determine how people39s perception of the whole is derived from their perception of individuals Human Factors 0 Research focusing on limits of our mental capacities and how they contstrain our actions 0 Concerned with helping people to perform tasks efficiently and safely Computer Simulation 0 Computer simulations have been used to create models and theories of human cognition 0 Computers provided ways of thinking about memory 0 Encoding 0 Storage 0 Retrieval 0 Memory Capacity 0 Two types of computer simulation models 0 Serial processors sequential processing 0 Parallel distributed processors processes occur at same time Cognitive Neuroscience 0 The scientific study of the relationship between the brain structures neurological activity and cognitive functions Goals 0 To discover how brain contributes to cognitive activity 0 Use neurological findings to test cognitive theories 0 Find treatments for debilitating neurological diseases Cognitive Science 0 is an interdisciplinary field 0 Anthropology Artificial Intelligence Linguistics PhHosophy Cogntiive psychology 0 Cognitive Neuropsych 0 GOAL collaboration 0000 Cognitive Science Cognitive Science Research Methods 0 Response Accuracy 0 Response latency RT 0 Produced responses 0 Responses participants make when they are asked to freely recall an event 0 Transfer of training aka transfer of learning Chapter 2 Brain and Cognition Early studies Trepanning or trephining 0 Ancient surgery 0 Performed by Hippocrates o Drilled holes in head to release evil spirits and stop epileptic seizures 0 Over 40000 years ago Brain Structure and Function MindBody problem How are the physical operations of concrete substance like the brain able to evoke the mental experiences of thought Neurons Building Blocks of the Brain Neurons cells specialized to receive and transmit information in the nervous system Each neuron has a 3 major parts 1 Cell body 2 Dendrites 3 Axon Dendrites receive info from body Cell body provides energy m trasmits impuses perceived by dendrites down to the axon terminal so they can be passed on to another neuron Terminal branches of axon form junctions with other cells Myelin sheath covers the axon and increases rate of impulses Synapse the space or contact points where one neuron communicates with another Neurotransmitters the endogenous chemicals that trasmit signals across a synapse or junction from one neuron nerve cell to another quottargetquot neuron muscle cell or gland cell Depletion can cause development of a disease Ex Parkinsons Excitatory increases chance neuron will fire Inhibitory decreases chance neuron will fire Nervous Impulse Action Potential 1 Neuron receives signal from environment 2 lfthreshold is met electrical information travels down the axon of that neuron 3 When the action potential reaches the end of the axon synaptic vesicles open and release chemical neurotransmitters 4 Neurotransmitters cross the synapse and bind with the receiving dendrites Measuring Action Potential Records microelectrode through oscilloscope to computer RATE OF FIRING is what is measured Maior Divisions of the Brain Three main sections from bottom to top 1 Hindbrain 2 Midbrain 3 Forebrain Hindbrain Parts include 1 Medulla responsible for controlling breathing regulating reflexes 2 Cerebellum coordinating motor activity movements of the body performing highlevel cognitive tasks testing this part of the brain for sobriety tests 3Pons responsible for monitoring sleep and arousal by coordinating with the autonomic nervous system Midbrain Func ons Relay center for sensory information Fibers associated with voluntary movement pass through the midbrain Substantia niagra Production of neutrotransmitter dopamine Parkinson39s caused by a lack of dopamine Schizophrenia caused by an excess of dopamine Forebrain o Cerebral Cortex o Regulates higher mental processes 0 Enables abilities such as complex learning memory thought and language Cerebral Cortex has Sulci deep valleys or wrinkles in the cortex Gyri are ridges on the cerebral cortex They are generally surrounded by one or more sulci o The surface of the cerebral cortex is greyish called grey matter 0 Grey matter is primarily comprised of oravish neural cell bodies 0 The underlying white matter of brain39s interior comprises of white mvelinated axons Brain Lateralization 0 Brain is divided into two halves hemispheres Right hemisphere Left hemisphere Left hemisphere controls basic language comprehensions analytical functions Right hemisphere participates in figurative language and metaphor o The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and the left hemisphere controls the right side Contralateral 0 Not all transmission is contralateral some same side transmission or Ipsilateral transmission occurs in the brain as well Commisures The two hemispheres are connected by collection of fibers called commissures Largest being corpus callosum Functional Hemispherectomy 0 Procedure in which portions of one hemisphere which are causing the sezures are removed and the corpus callosum which connects the two sides of the brain is cut 0 This procedure generally is used only for people with epilepsy who do not experience improvement in their condition after taking many different medications and who have severe uncontrollable seizures


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