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Research Methods in Psychology - week 1 notes

by: Jessica Twehous

Research Methods in Psychology - week 1 notes PSYCH 3010-02

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Psychlogy > PSYCH 3010-02 > Research Methods in Psychology week 1 notes
Jessica Twehous
GPA 3.8
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About this Document

These notes are exactly from the week 1 lecture!
Research Methods in Psychology I
Lisa Bauer
Class Notes
research, Psychology, methods




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Twehous on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3010-02 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Lisa Bauer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology I in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Psychology is a Way of Thinking          ­ Psychologists are empiricists ­ bases their findings on research    Research Producers, Research Consumers  ● Producers ­ produce research based on systematic observations (empirical research)  ● Consumers ­ apply research information  Many psychologists are both producers and consumers  ● Producers  ○ Researchers  ○ Graduate students  ○ Undergraduates  ● Students  ○ Graduate students conduct research as a part of their graduate school training  ○ Conduct a study as part of a course requirement  ○ Volunteer as a research assistant  ○ Present findings at a conference  ○ Publish findings in a journal  psych dept, mizzou, research, labs   NSF paid internships    Famous Researchers (Producers) You Learned About in Psych 1000  ● Herman Ebbinghaus ­ memory/memory loss  ● Ivan Pavlov ­ classical conditioning (pavloving conditioning) also Edward Twittmier  ● John B. Watson ­ conditioning fear in a child (Little Albert & white mouse)  ● Mary Cover Jones  ○ Counter­conditioning  ○ Desensitization  ○ Behavior therapy  ● Joseph Wolpe  ○ Anxiety hierarchy  ○ Relexation training  ○ Systematic desensitization  Psychology is a Way of Thinking (...cont'd)   ● B.F. Skinner  ○ Operant conditioning  ● Consumers ­ apply information  ○ Therapists  ○ Educators/Parents  ○ Students  ○ Anyone who is applying research information    Being a Good Consumer  ● Facilitated Communicationn (example from text)  ○ imagine you're an occupational therapist  ● Klewe (1993)  ○ 15 picture cards (3 blanks) shown one at a time  ○ Three conditions  ■ A = facilitator and patient see the same pictures  ■ B = screen placed between facilitator and patient  ■ C = screen placed between facilitator and patient AND different picture  ○ Results  ■ Spelling board performance was excellent when both facilitator and client  saw the same picture  ■ When they saw different pictures ­ the response was what the facilitator  saw and not .....***  ● The Polygraph (Lie Detector) Test  ○ It is not effective; APA clams unreliable    How Scientists Approach Their Work  ● Scientists are Empiricists  ● Scientists Test Theories: The Theory­Data Cycle  ● Scientists Tackle Applied and Basic Problems  ● Scientists Dig Deeper  ● Scientists Make Their Work Public  ○ The Publication Process  ○ From Journal to Journalism    Scientists are Empiricists  ● Scientists base their conclusions on systematic observations (data)  The Theory­Data Cycle (AKA Scientific Method)  Theory ­­> Research Questions ­­> Research Design ­­> Hypotheses ­­> Data ­­> Support or  Revision  ● Theory ­ a statement, or a set of statements, that degeneral princip​about  how variables relate to one another  ● Hypothesis ­ apredicti of how concepts/variables are related (often deduced from a  theory) in a particular study   ● Data ­ a set ​bservation​representing the values of some variable  ● Harry Harlow (1958)  ○ Tested: Cupboard Theory ­ infants attach to mother for food resources  ■ Designed a cage where there was a wire monkey with food or a terry  cloth monkey with no food  ○ Findings ­ it would go to the terry cloth monkey a lot more  ● Watson & Rayner (1920)  ○ Tested: Phobias are innate ­ tried to induce fear of a mouse for Little Albert  ● Gallup (1970)  ○ Tested: Only humans have a self­concept  ■ Mirror test  ○ Design  ■ Exposed to mirror for 9 days  ■ Day 3 increase in self­directed behaviors (e.g. picking food out of  teeth, grooming parts of the body that were not otherwise visible)  ■ Day 10 ­ Anesthetized chimpanzees  ■ Dabbed odorless red dye on one eyebrow ridge and upper  part of one ear  ■ Recovered for 4 hours  ■ Recorded responses (touching dyed areas) under two conditions:  ■ Observed for 30 minutes without mirror (1 response)  ■ Observed for 30 minutes with mirror present (4­10  responses per animal)  ■ Conclusion: Self recognition applies to chimpanzees  What are the Characteristics of a Good Theory?  ● Supported by data  ● Falsifiable ­ can be shown to be false  ● Parsimonious ­ the simplest explanation for a phenomenon  Note: Science is progressive and based on the weight of the evidence, therefore should not use  the word "prove" or "proof"       


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