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Sociology of Gender - week 3 notes

by: Jessica Twehous

Sociology of Gender - week 3 notes SOCIOL 3320-01

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Sociology > SOCIOL 3320-01 > Sociology of Gender week 3 notes
Jessica Twehous
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes are exactly from the week 3 lecture!
Sociology of Gender
Robyn Swink
Class Notes
sociology, Gender
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Twehous on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCIOL 3320-01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Robyn Swink in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Gender in Sociology at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
cont'd....    ● Impact on boys/men  ○ "pornification" of mainstream culture  ● Impact on adult women ­ if society is viewing women and girls as objects, women and  girls come to view themselves as objects   ○ body dissatisfaction = lower degrees of sexual pleasure   ○ less likely to have sexual agency­ knowing and asking for what you like  ○ = your sexuality suffers  ● Impact on young women  ○ women are flamboyoant with their sexuality; they think this is empowerment, but  it's not­­ seems important to act like you're in charge of your sexual life  ■ however, women know they're suppose to appear sexually free­­ it's  different than actually having control   ○ Feminism ­ empower your to be your best sexual self by getting double d breasts;  emmpowerment no longer on group solidarity, but empowering women to be their  "best self" but they're suppose to buy shit to be their best self; it's a manipulation   ○ disembodied version of empowerment  ○ individual empowerment vs structural empowerment  ○ Solution: difference between sex as consumption or sex as experience ­ focus is   ○ too much on consumption; also sexual vs sexy    "The Gender Similiarities Hypothesis" (Hyde 2005)  ● Differences hypothesis  ● Gender similarities hypothesis ­ women and men are actually way more similar than they  are different (contrary to popular thought)  ● A "meta­meta­analysis"  ○ over 78% of findings suggest that differences are not very big  ○ Men ranked better in throwing velocity and distance ... obviously because they  have more muscle mass BUT why does this happen? Girls are not socialized to  be as physical or practice things like throwing as much  ■  ● What's the "danger" of claiming significant gender differences?  ○ women expected to be more nurturing as professors; if not, called bitches  ○ overlooks women's ability to do good at math  "The Five Sexes, Revisited" (Fausto­Sterling 2000)  ● 1993: She proposed a five­sex system  ○ Males  ○ Females  ○ "Herms": people born with both a testis and an ovary  ○ "Merms": people born with testes and some aspect of female genitalia  ○ "Ferms": people who have ovaries and some aspect of male genitalia  ● Revisiting in 2000:  ○ Intersexual people  ○ Transgender people  ○ In sum: let'turn away from genitals   ■ shouldn't have to go to lengths of changing your gentials to embody a  different gender  ■ differences shouldn't all be bad        Social Constructions to Gender Relations    Gender is socially constructed:          ­ vary from culture to culture          ­ in any one culture over historical time          ­ over the course of person's life          ­ within a culture among groups of women and men    Sociological Approaches to Gender  ● What else does sociology add to the study of gender?  ○ A focus on the life course perspective  ■ Gender socialization   ■ Agents of socialization  ○ A focus on institutional analysis   ■ institutions themselves help reproduce differences  ■ we often don't think of institutions as gendered things but this is in order  to hide power structures  ○ A focus on theh interactionist perspective  ■ gender is not a thing that people possess, but act on  ■ we're always doing gender every day everywhere we go  ■ gender is institutions    "Doing Gender" (West and Zimmerman 1987)  ● What does it mean to "do gender"?  ○ it's not an attribute of a person, it's what you have to do all the time; not an  identity, but a relational aspect compared to others  ● Gender is OMNIRELEVANT ­ it's always present, always doing gender  ● Distinguish between:  ○ Sex, sex category, and gender  ■ women can be seen as unfeminine, but she still won't be seen as  unfemale  ■ sex category ­ getting cues to get a sens of what their sex is  ■ gender ­ seeing if you match your gender according to society  ● What is the role oaccountability?  ○ we can be called out by not doing it in the correct manly or feminine way ­ we  always have to be responsible for what we're doing  ● Criticisms of article ­ never define gender, don't talk about how power is related to  gender, not giving enough credit to gender upheld institutuionally  How do you do gender during a typical day?     "Doing Diifference" (West and Fenstermaker 1995)  ● Trying to account for difference/intersectionality  ○ when people talk about gender, they "forget" to talk about race and class  ● Problems with other approachehs to difference  ● How does "doing gender" compare to "doing race" and/or "doing class"?   ○ You can't look at any social action in isolation and understand its meaning ­ you  have to look at the context  ○ You don't need to have diversity in a place to do race, class, or gender ­­ they will  enact it on their own  ○ What looks like the same activity can have very different meanings doing it ­  black childchare vs white childcare  ○ Someone's location is going to impact how they see someone's else location     Judith Butler  ● Queer Theory ­ LGTBQ­­ all of these categories are socially constructed and we need to  deconstruct them ­ troubles any binary way of approaching these categories  ● Heterosexual matrix ­ certain biology = certain gender = certain sexual desire (ex. vagina  and breasts = women = straight [desires men])   ● How does Butler understand sex/gender?  ○ Discourse ­ no such thing as prediscursive sex ­­ nature's not a thing because we  make up gender; we talk about "natural" things based on our own cultural  knowledge  ○ Sex is just as much a part of culture as is gender    ● How does Butler understand woman/women in relation to identity politics?  ○ organizing around being one certain category   ○ There should no be / there is no real cateogry of "women/woman" because all  experiences are different  ○ If we're not gonna organize around identity, then what? A common goal/  challenge toward something   ○ Butler's take on subjectivity?  ■ Individual agency­ "subject" takes form of a person; how much are you  really control of in your world? Agency­ the ability to act and change your  circumstances  ■ The subject comes before the discourse ­ what we do makes who we are  as subjects               


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