HIST 100 3rd week of notes
HIST 100 3rd week of notes HIST 100
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaila Arao on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 100 at Colorado State University taught by Kristin Heineman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization Pre Mod in History at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Civilization (BE ABLE TO CONNECT KEY TERMS) 01/25/2016 ▯ ▯ History: first came from Herodotus—inquired of what happened in the past Herodotus: father of western civilization ▯ ▯ Prehistory—Stone Age Paleolithic Age (KEY TERM) means old stone, before advent of writing o Archaeology = only evidence for the distant past of humans Homo sapiens o Hunger-gathers (KEY TERMS) o Made durable tools from stone o Social hierarchy develops Known based on burials People buried with a bunch of stuff = rich People buried with out stuff = poorer o Religion Venus figurines Figures of women with bodies as if they have had children Worship the women body Cave paintings Cave of Lascaux (religious) A lot of pictures of reindeer but no reindeer bones o Otzi (utzi) 3,300 BC buried with shoes, satchel, stone tools tattoos Neolithic Age (new stone) o Neolithic revolution 10,000-4,ooo BC agriculture Domestication of animals Able to stay in one place o Change in daily life Food surplus Specialization of craft Not worried about where food is coming from we can expand our knowledge o happened in fertile crescent called Mesopotamia o first evidence of people growing own crops and domesticating animals o Tigris river on top and Euphrates river on bottom characteristics of civilization o urban focus cities become the center o religious structure o political and military structures organized administration and defense o development of writing usually reserved for the priestly and upper class, but still an essential aspect o artistic and intellectual activity architecture, artwork, crafts Mesopotamia o C. 4,000-1,000 BC (Bronze Age) o “land between two rivers” Tigris and Euphrates – modern day Iraq, Syria little bit of Turkey, Iran and Kuwait o Collection of a number of different societies o Huge advances in writing, math, astrology o Religion highly developed Sumerianth rd o 5 – 3 millennia BC o Eridu = first settlement o war very common o “king Priests” o inventions of Sumer wheel and plow planting of the first orchards dates, figs, and olives development of metal casting most significant = writing o cuneiform (KEY TERM) means wedge form first form of writing writing is significant because the insemination of knowledge knowledge is preserved and can be moved around o Epic of Gilgamesh Similar mythologies in the bible, Greek, Aztec About friendship Very pessimistic One of the oldest stories Written in Samarian writing o Enheduanna Sargon’s daughter Wrote short poems Is the world’s first known female writer o Threat to Sumer Broad, open plain with little defenses The Tigris/Euphrates flood sporadically Fertile crescent, land between two rivers Several neighboring people From 2350 BC Sumer was overrun several times by outsiders This uncertainty is reflected in literature and religion Worry, wonder, at the mercy of the gods and nature o Akkadian empire Sargon of Akkad united Sumerian/Semitic 2334 BC – 2193 BC Another warring nation Empire collapsed Climate Regional decline Invasions o Then Babylonians Akkadian rule eventually weakened Brief independence for Sumerian cities Than Babylonians invaded in turn Like Akkadians, they adopted Sumerian culture Hummarabi o Most important Babylonian ▯ ▯ Hammurabi Uses cuneiform to write down Hammurabi’s laws/ rights Two different types of law in Hammurabi’s law code First written code that we know of o Two forms of punishment o 1 is monetary punishment based on wealth rich guy beats up on poor guy he has to pay a fine o 2 is eye for an eye poor guy beats up poor guy he will have the same thing done to him ▯ Mesopotamian Religion these societies are polytheistic also synchronistic o Adding a bunch of different gods together from different religions continuous adding of gods sky gods, earth gods, forces of nature, animism gods were immortal and had supernatural powers o powers based on what part of the earth they are “in charge of” no ethical dimension religion was pessimistic and fatalistic ▯ Hepatoscopy Divination by liver o Source of blood o Life Extispicy o Other organs Sacrifice o Gift to gods o Bring fertility to wife o Bring healthy crops o Not everyone go enough meat/ protein so they would have these sacrifices and share with poor people Haruspex o Trained to interpret ▯ Mesopotamian Mathematics Sexagesimal numeral system o Gives us 60 second minutes o 60 minute hours o 360 circle o all geometry based place-value system ▯ *** advances in math and astrology were key to Mesopotamian advancements ▯ ▯ Early Civilizations ▯ ▯ Assyrians Most brutal conquerors of all time o Enjoyed it Descendants of the Sumer- Akkadians o Half= Babylonians o Other = Assyrians o 24 – 7 centuries BC o spoke Semitic language in Mesopotamia military expansion o Judah, Egypt, Babylon (conquered) o Start making better military weapons o Start making iron Stronger than bronze o First one to use horses and chariots Art work depicts brutality o Put artwork everywhere to remind people they have conquered what they will do o Very proud of what they do ▯ Ziggurat (KEY TERM) In Mesopotamia Religious temple Organize big structures to go to war *** war is one of the more sophisticated things that humans go do Power of a society is how well they go to war o Takes an incredible amount of organization of gathering hundreds of troops o Major planning ▯ Nineveh Syrian capitol at Nineveh Largest city in the world 690 BC Destroyed by Persians 612 ▯ Egypt Assyrians conquered Egypt Before that, the Egyptians were one of the most prosperous states Importance of the Nile o 4,000 miles o Reliable/predictable o Flows north o When it floods brings fertile soil from bottom of river to fertilize crops #1 contributing factor to the success of Egypt for so long Old Kingdom o Lower and upper Egypt were united into one culture o Pyramids were built 2686- 2181 BC United by Menes Pyramids Middle Kingdom o Time of decline 2040- 1786 BC New Kingdom o 1570- 1085 o when Persians take over ▯ Egyptian Religion Polytheistic (KEY TERM) o Gods maintained in humans/ animals/ nature o Pharaohs = god-men Afterlife = hugely significant o Pyramids = tombs for pharaohs Religious buildings Few minutes off of perfect north Built by aliens Said because no one really knows how they are built o Mummification Open up cavity Take out all guts, major organs, NOT HEART Put into conoptic jars Rest of body gets stuffed with cloth covered with natron Rub body in tree sap Whole process takes about 40-70 days originally just pharaohs but started to do dogs and cats heart gets put back for afterlife heart gets weighed heavier than a feather = convicted 1 of 40 sins you get fed to three most dangerous animals in Africa o Funerary art o Book of the Dead ▯ ▯ Pyramids of Giza One of the 7 wonders of the ancient world ▯ Khufu 4 Dynasty Pharaoh pyramids built for him Old Kingdom period ▯ Hatshepsut One of the first great women who have come down in history Married to the pharaoh Pharaoh dies and son is next in line o Son is to young so she takes over for the mean time Wives were viewed as goddesses as well ▯ Hieroglyphs (means: sacred writings) Second oldest writing form that we know of ideogram Each picture represents an entire idea Hieroglyphics went out of use due to.. o Coptic Using Greek scrip to write hieroglyphic terms ▯ Rosetta Stone (KEY TERMS) Dates to decree from Memphis o Cult of Ptolemy V Egyptian hieroglyphs, demotic script, Greek Without stone we probably would never have been able to decipher Egyptian language The key to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs rediscovered’ in 1799 by French soldiers o French defeated by British in Egypt o Now and has been on display in British museum ▯ Jean-Francois Champollion 1820 by age of 20 he can speak Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Avestan, Pahlavi, Arabic, Syriac, Chaldean, Persian, and Ge’ez unlocked Egyptian language after he unlocks it everyone starts to unlock the Egyptian writing as well ▯ ▯ Hittites Battle of Kadesh Egyptians and Hittites both say they won Each put up the peace treaty in their own writing that they each won the battle ▯ ▯ Refutation Evidence of “Asian” slaves in Egypt o Some must have been Hebrews No point for Jewish scribes to record the race of slaves Extra-biblical evidence o Outside of the bible evidence o Dead seas scrolls o Tel Dan Stele Talks about a potential house of David ▯ Kings First king of Israelites = Saul David = second king Solomon o Davrd’s son o 3 king o built temple to ONE god o taxes and favoritism o kingdom divided Assyrians destroy Israelite kingdom o capital Samaria was taken temple destroyed by Babylonians o Babylonian captivity DIASPORA ▯ Hebrew Religion Developed over time o Started out as a blend of Mesopotamian/Canaanite religion o Polytheistic Yahweh= chief god of Israel o But kings, rulers and people worshipped other gods During Babylonian exile, Yahweh became single o Exiles returned to Judah (help of Persians) o Monotheism becomes dominant belief First explicit from of monotheism the world had seen ▯ Persians Cyrus the Great o Founder of Archaemenid Empire o Innovative conqueror Would tell people he would provide them protection if they joined him o Freed the Jews from Babylon Only foreigner in the Hebrew bible referred to as the bible o Paradise gardens o Irrigation systems Qanat Siphon water to where they want it to go o Died in the battle before he could see his empire succeed\ o Becomes kings of kings Zoroastrianism (wont need to know on a test) o “good religion” revealed to Zoroaster o henotheism means ONE supreme god and than lesser deities worshipped in a different way o Ahura Mazda = supreme god o Vs Angra Mainyu (destructive spirit) o Zoroaster’s revelation ▯ ▯ ▯ Minoan Civilizations (live on the island of Crete, modern day Greece) ▯ ▯ Palace at Knosos Sir Arthur Evans Oldest in Europe? King Minos o Wife falls in love with bull and has Minotaur Minotaur (bull and human beast) Labyrinth Place admin ▯ 3 types of writings Cretan Hieroglyphs o Goes in circles o Only about 300 found o Not deciphered Linear A (KNOW) o Writing script of Minoans o Not deciphered o Found about 10,000 Linear B (KNOW) o Mycenaean script o Deciphered by the enigma guys o Old form of Greek ▯ Minoan Demise (KNOW) Volcano erupts o Sends tsunami towards northern end of the island of Crete o Weakened Minoan civilization greatly ▯ Mycenaean Civilization Visit Crete Realize the Minoans no longer have as much power Mycenaeans go and conquer Crete Tholos o Buried dead in these tombs Collapse of Bronze Age End of bronze age= begins dark age o Stopped writing Last tablet of linear B 1200 BC Sea peoples (KNOW THE BOLD) (COLLAPSE OF MYCANAEANS) o May be the reason for the end of writing Dorian invasion o Aka return of the Heracleidae o May also have been reason for end of writing Reasons for decline/ migration vary o Newest research suggest 300 year drought ▯ Homer Much about him is questionable 2 Books written o Iliad Troy and the Trojan war o odyssey o written in ionic Greek o dactylic hexameter long short short … dactylic = phalanges blind Iliad and odyssey were composed orally!! (TEST QUESTION) ▯ Sappho (KNOW) One of the great lyric poets Greek Woman Such a great poet th o Regarded as the 10 muse ▯ ▯ ▯
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