New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

World Civ 1 Honors

by: Shanna Beyer

World Civ 1 Honors HIST 1110

Marketplace > University of Memphis > History > HIST 1110 > World Civ 1 Honors
Shanna Beyer
University of Memphis
GPA 3.9

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Ancient India and China
World Civilization I Honors
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in World Civilization I Honors

Popular in History

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1110 at University of Memphis taught by ramsey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see World Civilization I Honors in History at University of Memphis.

Similar to HIST 1110 at University of Memphis


Reviews for World Civ 1 Honors


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/05/16
Ancient India and Ancient China Foundations of Harappan Society ● The Indus River ■ Silt-enriched water from mountain ranges ● Major society built by Dravidian peoples, 3000-2500 BCE ■ Cultivation of cotton before 5000 BCE, early domestication of poultry ■ Decline after 1900 BCE ● Major cities: Harappa (Punjab region) and Mohenjo-Daro (mouth of Indus River) ■ 70 smaller sites excavated Mohenjo-Daro Ruins ● Population c. 40,000 ● Regional center ■ Layout, architecture suggests public functions ■ Broad, paved streets, citadel, pool, sewage system ● Standardized weights evident throughout region ● Specialized labor ● Trade Harappan Society and Culture ● Evidence of social stratification ■ Dwelling size, decoration ● Harappan civilization: matriarchal? ■ Influence on later Indian culture ● Goddesses of fertility: dancing girl figurine Mysterious End of Harappan Civilization ● Reasons for disappearance unclear ■ Excessive deforestation, loss of topsoil ■ Earthquakes ■ Flooding ● Evidence of unburied dead ● Disappearance by 1500 BCE TheAryan “Invasion” ● Aryans, lighter-skinned Indo-European invaders from the north ● Dravidians, darker-skinned sedentary inhabitants of Harappa ● Color bias ● Socio-economic implications ● Difficulty of theory: no evidence of large-scale military conquest The EarlyAryans ● Pastoral economy: sheep, goats, horses, cattle ■ Vegetarianism not widespread until many centuries later (along with sacred status of cow) ● Religious and literary works: the Vedas ■ Sanskrit: sacred tongue ■ Prakrit: everyday language, evolved into Hindi, Urdu, Bengali ■ Four Vedas, most important the Rig Veda ● 1,028 hymns (mantras) to gods/goddesses The VedicAge ● Co■flicts between Aryans and indigenous dasas (“enemies,” “subjects”) Aryans fighting Dravidians ■ Also, Aryans fighting each other ● Chiefdoms: Rajas (“king”; L. Rex, “king”) ● Early concentration in Punjab, migrations further south ■ Development of iron metallurgy ■ Increasing reliance on agriculture ● Tribal connections evolve into political structures Varna: The Caste System ● Origins in Aryan domination of Dravidians ■ Brahmin, Priest ■ Kshatriya, Warrior ■ Vaishya, Peasant, artisan, merchant ■ Shudra, Landless peasant, servant ■ Harijan: “Untouchables” (those who handle ritually impure objects, i.e. to do with human body or dead animals) ● Jati, sub-system of castes ■ Related to urbanization, increasing social and economic complexity Patriarchy in Ancient Indian Society ● “Rule of the father” enforced by the Lawbook of Manu ● Overwhelmed Harappan matriarchy? ● Caste, jati, inheritance through male line Aryan Religion ● Major deity of Rig Veda: Indra, war god, king of the gods ● Elaborate ritual sacrifices to gods ■ Role of Brahmins key ● C. 800 BCE, some movement away from sacrificial cults ■ Mystical thought, influenced by Dravidians Teachings of the Upanishads ● Texts that represent blending of Aryan and Dravidian traditions ● Composed 800-400 BCE, some later collections down to 13th century CE ● Brahman: the Universal Soul ● Samsara: Cycle of birth/death (realm of earthly existence) and basis of reincarnation ● Karma: Misdeeds accounting for successive incarnations (lives) ● Moksha: mystical ecstasy; end of samsara and union with Brahman ● Moral relationship to system of Varna China: The Yellow River ● 3,000 miles: Tibet to the Yellow Sea ● Deposits fertile, light colored soil (loess, from glaciation) ● Violent periodic flooding: “China’s sorrow” Prehistoric Society: Yangshao ● 5000-3000 BCE ● Banpo Village ● Painted pottery ● Bronze tools The Earliest Dynasties ● Xia ■ C. 2200 BCE ■ Organized through village network ■ Hereditary monarchy ■ Flood control works ● Shang ■ 1766-1122 BCE ● Zhou ■ 1122-256 BCE Shang Dynasty ● Bronze metallurgy from 1200 BCE ■ State monopoly of ore deposits ● Horse-drawn chariots, other wheeled vehicles ● Large armies ● Political organization: network of fortified cities loyal to the center ■ 1000 cities ■ Capital moved six times ● Impressive architecture at Ao, Yin Shang Dynasty Burial Practices ● Hierarchical social structure ● Live burials alongside deceased member of ruling class ■ Sacrificial victims, mostly slaves ■ Wives, servants, friends, hunting companions ■ Later replaced by statuary (terracotta army, Qin Dynasty) Zhou Dynasty, 1122-256 BCE ● No law codes: rule by decree ■ “Mandate of Heaven” (“Tian”) ● Aggregation of villages opposed to Shang leadership ■ Leads to decentralization of authority ● Development of cheap iron weaponry ends Shang monopoly on Bronze ● Early money economy: cowrie shells Decline of the Zhou Dynasty ● Decentralized leadership style allows for building up of regional powers ■ Increasing local independence, refusal to pay Zhou taxes ● Iron metallurgy allows for widespread production of weaponry ● Northern invaders weaken Zhou dynasty, beginning in 8th c. BCE ● Internal dissention: the Period of the Warring States (403-221 BCE) Social Order in Ancient China ● Ruling classes have great advantage ■ Palatial compounds, luxurious lifestyle ■ Supported by agricultural surplus, taxes ■ Defended by monopoly on bronze weaponry ■ Hereditary privilege ● Support class made up of artisans, craftsmen ● Evidence of long-distance trade, merchant class ● Large class of semi-free peasants ● Slave class Family and Patriarchy ● Devotion to family, ancestor veneration ● Connection of spirit world to physical world ■ Ritual sacrifices ● Father the ritual head of family rites ● Earlier prominence of individual female leaders fades in later Shang, Zhou dynasties Oracle Bones and Early Chinese Writing ● Used for communicating with spirit world, determining future ■ Question written on animal bones, turtle shells ■ Then heated over fire, cracks interpreted as omens ● Early archeological evidence of Chinese writing ● Evolution of Chinese script ■ Pictograph to ideograph (no alphabet) Zhou Literature: “The Chinese Classics” ● Confucius (discussed later in Chapter 8) ● Book of Changes ■ Manual for divination ● Book of History ● Book of Etiquette (Book of Rites) ● Book of Songs ● Little of it has survived ■ Often written on perishable bamboo strips ■ Many destroyed by Emperor of Qin dynasty in 221 BCE Nomadic Peoples of Central Asia ● Steppe nomads ■ Poor lands for cultivation, extensive herding activities ■ Horses domesticated c. 4000 BCE, bronze metallurgy in 2900 BCE ● Extensive trade with sedentary cultures in China ● Tensions: frequent raiding Southern Expansion of Chinese Society ● Yangzi Valley ■ Yangzi River: Chang Jiang, “long river” ■ Excellent for rice cultivation ■ Irrigation system developed: rice terraces ● The State of Chu ■ Autonomous, challenged Zhou dynasty ■ Culture heavily influenced by Chinese ■ Incorporated by Qin dynasty


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.