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Week 4 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Week 4 Notes LSLS 7060

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These are the notes for week four of class covering chapter 5 in our textbook.
Applied Linguistics
Dr. Hye Pae
Class Notes
Syntax: English Learners Building Sentences
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LSLS 7060 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Hye Pae in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Week  4  Notes   Syntax   Written  by:  Krista  Anstead   February  2016     Learning  Outcomes:   •    explain  basic  elements  of  the  sentence  structure.   •    articulate  the  intricacies  of  the  verb  by  differentiating  its  role  in  the  sentence.   •    incorporate  syntactic  analysis  into  classroom  practice.   •    develop  a  lesson  plan  focusing  on  syntactic  features.     Readings/References:   Pae,  H.,  Schanding,  B.,  Kwon,  Y.,  &  Lee,  Y.  (2013).  Animacy  effect  and  language  specificity:     Judgment  of  unaccusative  verbs  by  Korean  learners  of  English  as  a  foreign  language.  J     Psycholinguist  Res,  42(2),  187-­‐207.   Razfar,  A.  &  Rumenapp,  J.  (2014).  Syntax:  English  learners  building  sentences.  In  Applying     linguistics  in  the  classroom:  A  sociocultural  approach  (pp.  82-­‐111).  New  York:  Routledge.     Acronyms:   •   universal  grammar  =  UG   •   sociocultural  approach  =  SCA   •   language  acquisition  device  =  LAD     Chapter  5  Notes   Introduction   •   language  is  best  viewed  as  tool  for  mediating  activities,  relationships,  assignments,   discussions,  and  identities   •   syntax:  concerned  with  how  languages  build  sentences   •   unexplained  errors  and  “red  ink”  can  cause  students  to  be  overly  cautious  when  taking   communicative  risks   •   morphosyntax:  study  of  how  speech  sounds  are  used  to  make  words  and  sentences   •   approaches  to  morphosyntax:   o   universal  grammar   §   aka  language  instinct  and  coined  by  Chomsky   §   assumes  humans  are  hardwired  with  LAD   §   grammar  of  the  mind  has  two  levels:  deep  and  surface  structure   •   distinguish  linguistic  approaches  to  grammar  and  notion  of   grammar  that  has  been  popularized  through  school  based   language  activities   §   highly  vetted  theory  and  considered  to  be  limited  when  dealing  with   semiotic  and  pragmatic  questions   §   lines  in  Tree  Diagrams  do  not  cross   o   grammar  as  a  social  construction   §   asks  why  do  S  use  language  a  certain  way?   §   SCA  foregrounds  central  role  of  cultural  activities  in  organization  of   morphosyntactic  rules  and  how  people  actually  use  language  in  everyday   contexts   o   Generative  grammar   §   Belief  that  language  structure  is  generated  in  the  mind  through   systematic  application  of  rules   •   Prescriptive  grammar:  grammar  we  learn  in  schools;  set  of  rules  that  tell  us  how  to   form/prescribe  sentences  and  phrases     Basic  Concepts  in  syntax   •   Word  order   o   Languages  are  grouped  based  on  order  in  which  they  organize  their  words   o   Two  most  common  word  orders:  SOV,  SVO  –  make  up  76%  of  languages   o   English  is  considered  SCO,  which  is  2  most  common   o   Possible  word  orders   §   SOV  –  Hindi,  Japanese,  Tibetan   §   SVO  –  Arabic,  English,  Mandarin,  Spanish,  Russian   §   VSO  -­‐  Irish,  Tagalog   §   VOS   §   OVS   §   OSV   §   No  dominant  order  –  Dutch,  German,  Hungarian     •   Lexical  Categories   o   Parts  of  speech:  where  words  from  a  particular  lexical  category  may  go   §   Nouns,  verbs,  adjectives,  prepositions,  adverbs,  determiners   o   Descriptive  syntax  is  not  concerned  about  meaning  but  rather  about  how   language  construct  sentences   o   Words  that  may  be  exchanged  belong  to  the  same  lexical  category   •   Agreement   o   Rules  governing  hierarchy  of  number,  person,  gender,  tense,  etc.   o   In  English,  verb  needs  to  agree  with  subject  in  number   o   In  Spanish,  adjectives  must  agree  in  both  gender  and  number  with  the  noun  (las   blancas  camisas  =  the  white  shirts)   o   English  does  not  show  gender   o   Case  agreement:  knowing  whether  or  not  a  word  is  functioning  as  a  DO  or  IO,   regardless  of  where  it  is  ordered  in  a  sentence   o   Number  agreement  is  NOT  universal   §   Mandarin  does  not  have  number  agreement   •   Phase  Structure  and  Hierarchy   o   Conventional  grammar   §   Nondescript   §   Fundamental  unit  is  individual  words   §   not  interested  in  consistency  or  dependency   o   Descriptive  grammar   §   Fundamental  unit  is  phrases,  which  are  arranged  in  a  hierarchy   •   Adj.  come  before  noun  in  English  but  after  noun  in  Spanish     •   Recursion   o   Embedding  of  phrases  within  phrases   o   Mind  is  assumed  to  be  able  to  process  and  contain  the  information  in  long  and   complex  sentences  because  it  is  organized  in  a  grammatical  system   o   Recursion  allows  sentences  to  theoretically  go  on  forever  (due  to  PPs   “restarting”  agreement  rules  and  sentence  types)   o   Can  help  us  to  understand  how  S  are  framing  their  world  through  the   grammatical  relationships  in  which  they  speak     Universal  syntactic  principles  of  language   •   Agreement   •   embedding     rethinking  syntax  in  classrooms   •   meaning  and  context   o   grammars  were  formed  to  describe  languages  so  that  the  spoken  language  could   be  written   o   commas  describe  spoken  language   o   punctuation  is  a  system  developed  to  describe  language  and  is  used  in  schools  to   prescribe  it   o   rules  are  merely  descriptions  of  what  people  actually  say  in  a  language   o   meaning  is  always  contextually  bound   •   function  of  words   o   there’s  no  single,  hard-­‐set  list  of  roles   o   types  of  English  roles   §   agent:  person  doing  the  action   §   patient:  thing  the  action  happened  to   §   instrument:  thing  involved  in  the  action,  but  not  the  agent   §   theme:  thing  that  is  in  a  state  or  undergoes  a  change   §   experiencer:  an  animate  being  that  has  a  perceptual  or  mental   experience   §   source:  person,  object,  or  place  change  starts  from   §   recipient:  person  that  gains  possession  of  something   •   identity  and  power   o   differences  in  agency  may  reveal  blame,  indicate  causation,  or  show  some  other   social  relationship  between  who  is  doing  what  to  whom   o   passive  voice  is  used  in  public  relations  and  avoids  placing  direct  blame  on  the   name  caller     Ambiguity  in  sentences   •   Puns:  contain  ambiguous  words  that  give  potential  for  double  meaning,  one  that  is   literal  and  one  that  is  figurative     Teaching  students  to  engage  in  inquiry  using  syntactic  analyses   o   grammar  is  boring  because  we  have  stripped  it  of  its  social  function  while   teaching   o   we  need  to  engage  students  in  the  study  of  syntax  through  providing  them  with   meaningful  activities  using  syntax  puzzles,  studying  politicians/  sports   broadcasters/  TV  shows,  etc.   o   need  to  provide  opportunities  for  students  to  learn  through  their  own  inquiry   o   don’t  look  at  language  as  set  of  grammatical  rules,  but  rather  that  language  is   seen  as  a  tool  to  build  different  types  of  social  relationships   o   differences  in  English  and  Spanish  are  important  to  keep  in  mind  so  we  can   understand  where  our  students  “errors”  are  coming  from,  and  provide  an   explanation  for  the  pattern  in  English   o   let  your  S  solve  problems  themselves  through  discovery  and  inquiry;  leads  S  to   achieve  deeper  understanding  than  grammar  worksheets    


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