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Human Bio Class Notes week of 02/01

by: Eleonora Sacks

Human Bio Class Notes week of 02/01 BSC 2023

Marketplace > Florida International University > Biology > BSC 2023 > Human Bio Class Notes week of 02 01
Eleonora Sacks
GPA 3.92

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Genetics, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and neurons
Human Biology
Paul Sharp
Class Notes
Biology, Human Biology, nervous system, neurons
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleonora Sacks on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2023 at Florida International University taught by Paul Sharp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Human Bio: class notes 02/01/2016 ▯ Genetics: Cont.  Dominant always masks the recessive in a heterozygote  Principle of segregation: 2 alleles of a gene segregate during gamete  formation and are rejoined at random during fertilization. (like independent  assortment)  Remember: heterozygote is a capital letter and a lowercase letter (Aa)  Incomplete dominance: happens when the heterozygote is intermediate  between the 2 homozygotes. Eg: you have HH= straight hair, hh= curly hair  but Hh= wavy hair. If the parents are HH and hh, all of the children will be Hh  and therefore have wavy hair.  Codominance: happens when alleles are equally expressed in the  heterozygote (one doesnt mask the other) (eg: blood type)  Multiple­allele inheritance: inheritance pattern in which there are more than 2  alleles for a particular trait. eg: blood type, because A, B, O  Polygenic inheritance: inheritance pattern in which more than 1 gene affects a trait. eg: skin tone, height­­3 genes involved in these: A,B,C  Autosomes: any chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes  Sex chromosomes: determine the sex of an individual (XX­female,XY­male)  Sex­linked: refers to an allele that occurs on the sex chromosome but may  control a trait that has nothing to do with the sex characteristics of an  individual.  X­linked: refers to an allele located on the X chromosome.  eg: XB­ normal vision, Xb=red/green colorblind    Pedigree: a graphical representation of matings of offspring over multiple generations for a particular trait (like a family tree that indicates the family members' genotype and phenotype).   How to do the problems: look at each trait and do a punnet square to find the parents' possible genotype.  ▯ Nervous System Organ system consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and associated nerves that coordinates the other organ systems of the body Central nervous system: Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system:  Nerves: composed of axons and dendrites  Divides into: o Somatic nervous system: nerves that serve the skin, skeletal  muscle and tendons, voluntary and involuntary control (reflexes) o Autonomic nervous system: regulates the activity of cardiac of  smooth muscles (many associated with gastrointestinal tract and  blood vessels that control blood flow to the body), organs and  glands, also involuntary control (remember: autonomic=automatic things­­no control over heart beating etc)  Sympathetic: activities associated with emergency (fight or  flight) AKA: E division (think of Emergency)  Parasympathetic: active under normal conditions (rest and  digestion) AKA: D division (think of Diaresis­­production of  urine) Functions: 1.  Receives sensory input: senses (touch, hearing, smell, etc) eg: the  smell of baking cookies is picked up by the PNS and that info is sent to  the CNS 2.  CNS performs information processing and integration: the CNS reviews  info and stores it as memories. eg: the smell of baking cookies evokes  pleasant memories of their taste 3. CNS generates an appropriate motor response: eg the smell of baking  cookies makes the CNS actives the PNS to activate muscles, glands,  organs (move to eat the cookies)  Nervous tissue contains 2 types of cells: 1. Neurons: nerve cells that transmit impulses between parts of the  nervous system:  Nerve signal: action potentials traveling along a neuron, conveys  info  Action potential: change in electrical conditions at a neurons  membrane (like a line of dominoes, one falls and then each one  keeps falling after that). Normal state: negative on the inside,  positive on the outside:    Refractory period: portion of axon immediately following the action  potential is unable to conduct and action potential that ensures a  one­way direction of a signal (cell body to axon)   Parts:  Cell body,   Dendrites   Axon  Types:  1. Sensory neurons: sensory receptors in the PNS that take  the info to the CNS 2. Interneurons: found entirely in the CNS (work as a relay)  3. Motor neurons: move the info from the CNS to the PNS so  that the body moves  (photo showing all types of neurons  together) 2. Neuroglia: nonconducting nerve cells that support the neurons  Schwann cells: found connected to the axons, nucleus can be  seen, like insulation for the cells, conducts saltatory conduction  (jumping: the info jumps between cells which is faster­­100 times  faster)   Afferent: going to the spinal cord (the info of the mallot hitting the knee is  going to be processed)  Efferent: away from spinal cord (the info goes to the muscle to make it move) 


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