Human Bio Class Notes week of 02/01
Human Bio Class Notes week of 02/01 BSC 2023
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleonora Sacks on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2023 at Florida International University taught by Paul Sharp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Human Bio: class notes 02/01/2016 ▯ Genetics: Cont. Dominant always masks the recessive in a heterozygote Principle of segregation: 2 alleles of a gene segregate during gamete formation and are rejoined at random during fertilization. (like independent assortment) Remember: heterozygote is a capital letter and a lowercase letter (Aa) Incomplete dominance: happens when the heterozygote is intermediate between the 2 homozygotes. Eg: you have HH= straight hair, hh= curly hair but Hh= wavy hair. If the parents are HH and hh, all of the children will be Hh and therefore have wavy hair. Codominance: happens when alleles are equally expressed in the heterozygote (one doesnt mask the other) (eg: blood type) Multipleallele inheritance: inheritance pattern in which there are more than 2 alleles for a particular trait. eg: blood type, because A, B, O Polygenic inheritance: inheritance pattern in which more than 1 gene affects a trait. eg: skin tone, height3 genes involved in these: A,B,C Autosomes: any chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes Sex chromosomes: determine the sex of an individual (XXfemale,XYmale) Sexlinked: refers to an allele that occurs on the sex chromosome but may control a trait that has nothing to do with the sex characteristics of an individual. Xlinked: refers to an allele located on the X chromosome. eg: XB normal vision, Xb=red/green colorblind Pedigree: a graphical representation of matings of offspring over multiple generations for a particular trait (like a family tree that indicates the family members' genotype and phenotype). How to do the problems: look at each trait and do a punnet square to find the parents' possible genotype. ▯ Nervous System Organ system consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and associated nerves that coordinates the other organ systems of the body Central nervous system: Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system: Nerves: composed of axons and dendrites Divides into: o Somatic nervous system: nerves that serve the skin, skeletal muscle and tendons, voluntary and involuntary control (reflexes) o Autonomic nervous system: regulates the activity of cardiac of smooth muscles (many associated with gastrointestinal tract and blood vessels that control blood flow to the body), organs and glands, also involuntary control (remember: autonomic=automatic thingsno control over heart beating etc) Sympathetic: activities associated with emergency (fight or flight) AKA: E division (think of Emergency) Parasympathetic: active under normal conditions (rest and digestion) AKA: D division (think of Diaresisproduction of urine) Functions: 1. Receives sensory input: senses (touch, hearing, smell, etc) eg: the smell of baking cookies is picked up by the PNS and that info is sent to the CNS 2. CNS performs information processing and integration: the CNS reviews info and stores it as memories. eg: the smell of baking cookies evokes pleasant memories of their taste 3. CNS generates an appropriate motor response: eg the smell of baking cookies makes the CNS actives the PNS to activate muscles, glands, organs (move to eat the cookies) Nervous tissue contains 2 types of cells: 1. Neurons: nerve cells that transmit impulses between parts of the nervous system: Nerve signal: action potentials traveling along a neuron, conveys info Action potential: change in electrical conditions at a neurons membrane (like a line of dominoes, one falls and then each one keeps falling after that). Normal state: negative on the inside, positive on the outside: Refractory period: portion of axon immediately following the action potential is unable to conduct and action potential that ensures a oneway direction of a signal (cell body to axon) Parts: Cell body, Dendrites Axon Types: 1. Sensory neurons: sensory receptors in the PNS that take the info to the CNS 2. Interneurons: found entirely in the CNS (work as a relay) 3. Motor neurons: move the info from the CNS to the PNS so that the body moves (photo showing all types of neurons together) 2. Neuroglia: nonconducting nerve cells that support the neurons Schwann cells: found connected to the axons, nucleus can be seen, like insulation for the cells, conducts saltatory conduction (jumping: the info jumps between cells which is faster100 times faster) Afferent: going to the spinal cord (the info of the mallot hitting the knee is going to be processed) Efferent: away from spinal cord (the info goes to the muscle to make it move)
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