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BSC 215- Week 4 Notes

by: Alexia Acebo

BSC 215- Week 4 Notes BSC 215

Alexia Acebo
GPA 3.7

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A collection of notes from the fourth week of BSC 215! Clicker questions included!
Human Anatomy & Physiology I
Dr. Jason Pienaar
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology I in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/05/16
BSC 215- Week 4 Notes Lecture 5 -The Cell Membrane- **All life is cell based LO 1. Understand “cell theory” and scientific discoveries that led -We didn’t know about cells until the microscope Biology: technology drives the science  Robert Hook  Anton Van Leeuwenhoek st  Louis Pasteur (1 experiments)  Schleiden & Swan o 3 Tenets of cell theory: 1. All living organisms are composed of cells 2. The cell is the most basic unit of life 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells LO 2. Understand Variation and Limits on cellular morphology Morphology: Shape and Size Shape Variation:  Skin cells  Egg cells  Nerve cells  Bacterial cells  Plant cells Size Variation:  Sperm (small) v. egg (big) SIZE:  Egg cell- 100 micrometer diameter  Nerve- >1m long  Most human cells- 10-15 micrometer diameter **When s/v ratio too small: cell not functional LO 3. Know the 3 Basic components of cells and the terminology used to describe them - Plasma membrane: what composes the cell - Extracellular space/fluid: anything outside of the cell - Intracellular space/ fluid: inside cell (mostly water) - Cytoplasm: Liquid- cytosol, solid- organelles, cytoskeleton (protein network) - Nucleus: double stranded DNA inside, all life has some area where hereditary material is found - Nuclear envelope: 2x plasma membrane surrounding nucleus LO 4. Describe how lipids, carbs and proteins are distributed in a cell membrane and explain their respective functions  AMPHIPATIC 2 Lipids in Cell membrane -phospholipids -cholesterol (stiffer) LIPIDS charged head, non charged head, fatty acid tail  98% of membrane molecules are lipids o 75% phospholipids  amphipatic  form bilayers o 20% cholesterol  stiffen membrane o 5% glycolipids  glyco+lipid  form part of glycocalyx (sugar coating of cell) PROTEINS  2% of membrane molecules (50% mass)  2 major classes o Integral o Peripheral -Membrane Proteins- Carbohydrates  Glycocalyx o Glycolipids o Glycoproteins  Unique identifier o Guides embryonic cells to detinations o Immune functions o Adhesion functions LO 5. Understand passive transport mechanisms across cell membranes Passive Transport DOES NOT require energy DIFFUSION OSMOSIS  Movement of solutes  Movement of solvent down a concentration down a concentration gradient gradient (semi-perm membrane) **Cell membranes are selectively permeable  Based on: o Size o Charge  Hydrophobic v. phyllic o Membrane protein specificity  BUT still just diffusion Simple v. Facilitated Diffusion distinguished by need for energy SIMPLE FACILITATED Directly through the  Carrier Mediated: membrane (Hydrophobic, protein specific for 1 small molecules) chemical, binding of substrate causes shape change in transport protein  Channel mediated: mostly ions selected on basis of size and charge Factors Affecting Membrane Diffusion rate  Temperature o Increase in temp., particles move faster, quicker diffusion  Molecular mass o Larger molecules diffuse slower and vice versa  Concentration Gradient o Greater, more diffusion  Membrane surface area o Increase= more space for solutes to move across  Membrane permeability o More permeable= faster o Hydrophobic will diffuse faster than hydrophyllic Osmosis  Diffusion of solvent across a membrane  Water flows DOWN a concentration gradient  Dissolved solutes determine water concentrations  Hydration spheres also help TONICITY **most cells= 1% solution (isotonic) Aquaporins  Some water always diffuses across the plasma membrane o Water is small and partially charged o Aquaporins embedded in cell membrane to let water flow  **can control osmotic rate by varying aquaporin # -Diffusion Summary- SIMPLE CARRIER CHANNEL MEDIATED MEDIATED Hydrophobic No energy Osmosis/aquapor ins LO 6. Understand active transport mechanisms across cell membrane -Diffusion, whether simple or facilitated ALWAYS passive Membrane Protein Pumps -The Sodium Potassium Pump- **ALL animals have them crucial for: nerve cell signaling, skeletal muscle contraction, heart beat, osmotic balance  antiporter- Na one way, K other way  ATPase- breaks down ATP to pump !MAINTAINS SODIUM OUTSIDE! !MAINTAINS POTASSIUM INSIDE! -up to 30% of our energy is used for this pump Na/K pump primary active transport -uses ATP as energy source -Secondary Active Transport- Glucose Symporter Vesicular Transport  Movement of large particles or many molecules simultaneously through membranes in membrane derived processes o Endocytosis: into cell  Phagocytosis: cell eating  Pinocytosis: cell drinking  Receptor mediated endocytosis: specific molecule transport o Exocytosis: out of cell Clicker Quiz (2/4/16)  3 main components of the cell o plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus  Difference between active/ passive transport o Energy  Na/K pump o 2K in, 3 Na out  not part of endomembrane system o cilia  secondary active transport o glucose symporter Lecture 6 -Cytoskeleton and Organelles- Cell ultrastructure - plasma membrane - nucleus - nuclear envelope - ribosomes - mitochondrion - golgi complex LO 1. Describe the structure/function of each organelle Mitochondria  powerplant of the cell  specialized for ATP synthesis  double membrane o inner membrane: cristae (folds)  surrounds matrix Ribosomes  specialized for protein synthesis  large and small protein subunits o present in every living organism  free in cytosol or bound to rough ER & nuclear membranes Endoplasmic Reticulum  network of cisternae (tubules) continuous with outer nuclear membrane o Rough ER studded with ribosomes  Protein folding  Membrane factory  Combines integral proteins and lipids prefabricated cell membrane sections o Smooth ER  No ribosomes  Calcium ion storage  Detoxification reactions  Lipid synthesis


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