Notes for Intro to International Relations
Notes for Intro to International Relations PSCI 2223
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caylin Enoch on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 2223 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Dr. Jaroslav Tir in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 405 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Relations in Political Science at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Intro T o International Relations Lecture 1/13/16 01/24/2016 ▯ I. What Is International Relations? A. A game of politics on the international level B. What are Politics? o A game of resource allocation o Who gets what, when, and how (ex. Water, oil, security, land, information) C. The object of Global Politics o Get more of the resources you value o How do you accomplish this? Set the rules of the game Different countries are trying to rig the game in their benefit Rules according to Russia vs. US vs. China vs. Netherlands vs. North Korea vs. Palau ▯ ▯ II. How Do We Study International Relations? A. Types of knowledge: o Descriptive (the facts) o Explanatory (why, how) o Predictive (if certain conditions are met, what will be the consequences?) o Prescriptive (figuring out how to change policies to get y, must do x) Methodology o Logic, behavioral observation (not so much the rhetoric, but the actions) ▯ _____________________________________________________________ ▯ Recitation 1/13/16 ▯ Do actions in one part of the globe affect others? Do political actors have to take into account these impacts to get what they want? ▯ Conflict- war, militarized disputes ▯ International Economics- trade policy, international finance ▯ Other- Immigration/refugees, human rights, environment ▯ ▯ Key Theories: Realism, Liberalism/Institutionalism, Marxism ▯ III. Where do we look for clues? What influences international events? ▯ Levels of analysis: o Individual (look at key people who influence international events) Ex. WWII- Hitler o State (focus on some conditions/attributes dealing with the state) Ex. WWII- Economy, no moral, no leadership o Dyadic (focus on interactions/relationships between states) Ex. WWII- Treaty from the leagues of nations/reparations o Systemic (politics as a whole, system structures) Ex. WWII- Weakness of league of nations (missing the US) ▯ _____________________________________________________________ ▯ Recitation 1/20/16 ▯ ▯ Theorizing About IR What does it mean for something to be scientific? (political SCIENCE) o Generalizable, explanatory theories Who does a specific phenomenon occur? o Empirical Evaluation? How do we know whether the theory is right? ▯ ▯ International Relations: Politics at the international level, who gets what how Who acts? What they want? Why they want it? How they plan to get it? ▯ ▯ IV. The State The dominant way of political organization Meaning of the term “state” o US Politics: State=Colorado, etc. o Comp. Politics: State= Gov’t/regime o IR: State=Country, such as Russia, etc. Ex. Of alternatives to states: o Tribes, empires, feudal entity, principality, city-state, city league, European union ▯ When is a political entity considered a state? o Key properties: Territory Population Sovereignty Diplomatic Recognition you’re a state if other states recognize you as a state ▯ V. Where Do States Come From? Origins of the Modern State: o Late Feudal Period in Europe Presence of a monarch, but not as strong as the Church Land=Resources Kingdoms dependent on feudal lords for knights/forces Roman Catholic Church reinforced that monarchs are representatives of God Taught that even though living conditions were not good but, if they obeyed the rules, their rewards would be in the afterlife (Heaven). Micro/Macro system of order Key Changes o Renaissance and Reformation Science and Art education drew people away from the Church undermine the Church, undermine “the rules” Invention of gun powder Cannons can shoot through castle walls, undermined the power of lords 30 years way and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) between Protestants and Catholics Treaty: Cuius Regio, Eius Religio (whos realm, his relgion) o Kings has sovereignty over their states, population of their state has to follow that king’s religion Why did the rest of the world organize into states? o Europeans expanded and colonizes, left behind principles of sovereignty ▯ ▯ VI. Reinventing the State: French Revolution and Napoleon o Louis XIV- “I am the state” o Gov’t was operating on its own behalf, not the people’s behalf o Revolution: Gov’t should govern on behalf of the people Subjects became citizens A Potentially Unintended Consequences o Who are “the people”? o Birth of nationalism the people are the French nations o Nation: A community defined by some similarity Key nationalist agenda Self-determination: nation gets to decide its own destiny o The concept of the state transformed into the one nation-one state ideal Every nation should have its own state Napoleon spreads this idea around ▯ _____________________________________________________________ ▯ Recitation 1/27/16 ▯ ▯ The State ▯ The State: political entity controlling define territory, population, with sovereignty and recognition ▯ The Nation: a group of people that identify as a nation o Based on shared culture, language, religion, history There is no clear way to evaluate if something is a nation or not Its existence is subject to politics and debate Nation-State: the nation=the state o The nation falls within the boundary of the state- very rare ▯ Different From States: o IGOs- UN, WTO, AU, NATO o NGOs- ICRC, Amnesty International, MSF, GreenPeace o MNCs- Airbus, ExxonMobil o Terrorist/Rebel Groups- ISIS, Al Qaeda, etc. ▯ Why do we focus on states? o States have a monopoly on the legitimate use of force How? Sovereignty ▯ Future of the State? o What is Barber’s “Jihad”? how the state is falling apart Threat from below Deuling nationalism will fragment the state o What is Barber’s “McWorld”? globalization, borders are becoming less important and eroding the sovereignty of the state Threat from above Ending sovereignty ▯ VII. The State Under Threat? How common are true nation-states? o Not very common- maybe Japan, Denmark, Iceland, Slovenia What is the problem if national and state boundaries do not correspond? o Nationalists argue the state is wrong, people want to change boundaries o Loyalty to the state or the nation? o Secessionist movements In addition to the threat from below (or within) is there also a threat to the state from above? How is globalization challenging the state? o Some would argue that nationalism or globalization are the forces that are fundamentally shaping the world we live in. ▯ ▯ VIII. Neorealism Key principle: Power Basics of Realism (per hobbes) Realism believes the world hasn’t changed, the basic dynamics of politics is the same o Intellectual origins: Hobbes, Machiavelli, Morgenthau, Thucydides, o General View of the Word Unlimited competition among humans to satisfy their unending wants Unchecked by a higher authority, how far does this competition go? The world is in a state of chaos People are self-serving State of nature is a state of war o War is normal o In the Hobbesian competition, what determines who gets what and how much Relative power Power is the most valuable commodity Dahl’s Definition: the ability to get someone to do something they would otherwise not do Where does this power come form? Realists say military/weapons ▯ Realism: Realists- How do you know when you’re well off? Relative power (satisfaction is relative) Key goal= acquisition + preservation of relative power o A zero sum view of the world ▯ The International Arena States are much like humans o Greedy for power o Rational, preferring more power to less o International politics as a ceaseless and unlimited struggle for power How is the behavior of states checked? o No world government Anarchy (anarchy does not equal chaos) o Who will look after you Self-help world Given anarchy, relative power variations shape preferences and determine outcomes ▯ ▯ __________________________________________________________ ▯ Recitation 2/3/16 ▯ ▯ Barber’s “Jihad” Threat to state from below o Nation and State doesn’t match o Can lead to Violence Terrorism Undermining sovereignty ▯ Barber’s “McWorld” Threat to state from above Globalization o Economic Integration o Transnational environmental problems o International organizations Leads to o Increasing constraints on state action ▯ ▯ Future of the State Is Barber correct that the state will no longer be the central actor in international politics? ▯ ▯ What is Power? “The ability to get someone else to do something they otherwise wouldn’t” What gives a state power? Hard Power o Military o Economic Soft Power o Culture o Values o Persuasion Power is fundamentally relative Can only measure power in relation to other states/actors
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