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Evolutionary Bio Test 2 Week 2

by: Adam Rodenberg

Evolutionary Bio Test 2 Week 2 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001

Adam Rodenberg

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About this Document

This set of notes includes everything Dr. Sears covered in class plus all of the vocabulary and major notes from the textbook from this week.
Evolutionary Biology
Dr. Michael Sears
Class Notes
evolutionary, Biology, Clemson, Sears, Test 2
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adam Rodenberg on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Michael Sears in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 02/05/16
Evolutionary Bio Test 2 Week 2 This set of notes includes everything Dr. Sears covered in class plus all of the vocabulary and major notes from the textbook from this week. 2/9/16 Chromosome mutations­  Chromosomal inversions­ through radiation, etc. both ends of a chromosome can break, mistakes can be made. Inversions suppress crossing over, resulting in ‘super genes’.  Are these^ important in evolution?­ selection might favor certain chromosomal inversions to  help maintain combinations of alleles across nearby loci.  Genome duplications­ duplications of the entire genome are an important mechanism of  speciation­ especially in plants It can be used as a mechanism for adaptation­ changes in ploidy can alter phenotypes in a way  that makes individuals better adapted to new environments Gene duplications in tiger salamander­ female chooses how much of the males genetic material  she passes on. Females incorporate male genes, but increase ploidy levels. Female replaces some of her genetic material with that of the males from clipping his out.  Rates and fitness effects of mutations­ mutation accumulation experiments demonstrate that  mutation rate evolves. gene duplications can be more common than mutations Gene duplication is more common than a point mutation The distribution of fitness of new mutations­ many of the mutations accumulation lines carried  beneficial mutations Types of mutations­ lethal, deleterious, neutral, beneficial Lethal and deleterious mutation outnumber neutral and beneficial mutations Balance btwn mutation and natural selection­ it’s the action of natural selsection, culling  damaging mutations and preserving the advantageous on, that saves the populations from the  inexorable decline. (they used nematodes to experiment on; forcing mutations on them, and  seeing how natural selectin effects the following populations. In the experiment, natural selection almost immediately returned to the original genome) Population genetics****­ marries Mendelian genetics with Darwin’s theories of natural  selection­ from a population geneticists’ perspective, evolution can be defined as change across  generations in the frequencies of alleles. From a geneticists’ perspective, evolution can be defined as change across generations in the  frequencies of alleles By random chance alone, populations evolve due to slight changes in allele frequencies Calculating allele frequencies­   Hardy­Weinberg principle­      (p + q)  = p  + 2pq + q  = 1 HW conclusion1­ the allele frequencies in a population will not change,  generation after  generation HW conclusion 2­ If the allele frequencies in a population are given by p and q, the genotype  frequencies will be given by p2, 2pq, and q2.  2/11/16 Reaction norm­  Cline­  HW assumptions­ no selection, no mutation, no migration, no chance events, random mating Mechanisms of evolution­ mutation, drift, selection, migration(organisms come in from dif  populations) How to know when a population is not in HW equilibrium­ Chi­squared test Chi squared test­  x⌃2= E(observed ­ expected)2/(expected) Degrees of freedom­ df= k­1­m Expected for AA = (P^2)N         Expected for Aa= 2PQN      Expected for aa= (Q^2)N     N=total Selection happens when individuals with particular phenotypes survive to sexual maturity(or  reproduce) at a higher rate than organisms with other phenotypes.   Strong selection vs weak selection­ strong­quick change  weak slower change Fruit flies differentiate when grown in different media Can humans evolve in response to HIV/AIDS?­ certain alleles occurs in humans that Textbook Vocab Ch. 5 Genetic variation­ diversity in gene frequencies Environmental variation­ genetic variation resulting from environmental influences Genotype­by­environment­ when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in  different ways Genome­ the corpus of genetic instructions carried by an individual  Alleles­ different versions of a gene Genotype­ the combination of alleles an individual carries Phenotype­ the suite of an individual exhibits Inducible defense­ growth of armor in response to phantom midge kairomone  Expression­ production of proteins Epigenetic marks­  Features not directly governed by the genetic code Phenotypic plasticity­a characteristic of organisms who develop different phenotypes in different environments Mutations­ changes in the genome Premutations­ alterations to DNA due to chemical degradation and replication errors must evade  correction to become persistent mutations Point mutation­ the substitution of one base for another (the smallest possible mutation) Transition­ substitution of a purine for a purine or a pyramidine for a pyramidine Transversion­ substitution of a purine for a pyramidine or vice versa Synonymous(silent) mutation­ a mutation that leaves the protein unaltered Nonsynonymous(replacement) substitution­ a mutation that changes the amino acid specified by  a codon Nonsense mutation­ a mutation that introduces a premature stop codon Introns­ noncoding sequences Exons­ coding sequences Indels­ point mutations, insertions, and deletions Gene duplications­ unequal crossing over, retroposition, or retroduplication Pseudogenes­ a nonfunctional gene that lacks regulatory sequences thata cause it to be  transcribed Paralogous­ genes that are located in a genome and later diverge in function Orthologous­ genes derived from a common ancestral sequence and separated by a speciation  event Inversions­ a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end  to end Linkage­ the tendency for alleles of different alleles of different genes to assort together at  meiosis Polymorphic­ chromosomes with and without specific inversions exist Cline­ regular change in the frequency of an allele or an inversion over a geographic area Polyploid­ organisms with more than two chromosome sets Mutation accumulation­ the evolutionary effect of adverse events declines following the age at  which an organism is initially capable of reproduction Ch. 6 Population genetics­ integrates evolution by natural selection with Mendelian genetics Population­ a group of interbreeding animals and their offspring Gene pool­ all the eggs and sperm produced by all the adults in the population, dumped into a  (figurative) barrel Genetic drift­ the fact that blind luck can cause a population to evolve unpredictably Selection­ what happens when individuals with particular phenotypes survive to sexual maturity  to produce offspring than those with other phenotypes Heterozygote superiority/Overdominance­ a hypothesis in which heterozygotes have higher  fitness than either homozygote Underdominance­ the selection against the mean of a population distribution, causing disruptive  selection and divergent genotypes Frequency­dependent selection­ when selection favors one character until it becomes too  common, then switches to favor another character Mutation­selection balance­ when the rate at which copies of deleterious allele are being  eliminated by selection is equal to the rate at which new copies are being created by mutation,  the frequency of the allele is at equilibrium


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