PSY: 101|Sensation and Perception
PSY: 101|Sensation and Perception PSY 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alvin Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Mae in Winter2014. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Sensation & Perception: Sensation = / Perception ● Sensation Stimulation of sense organ by outside stimulus. ○ Objective ● Perception Interpretation of the sensation ○ Subjective ● Supraliminal perception Being above conscious / on the conscious level ● Subliminal perception Being below conscious / on the subconscious level ● Sensory adaptation Getting use to the sensation ● Distal stimuli Stimuli that lines the outside world about you ○ distance ● Proximal stimuli Stimuli that reaches your senses from the outside. ○ close ● Perceptual hypothesis It makes guesses on the five senses. Vision ● The stimulus is light wave. ○ Amplitude Height, brightness ○ Wavelength Frequency, length, hue ○ Purity Saturation ● The receptors ○ Cones cells colors, bright light ■ Less sensitive ○ Rods cells night vision, dim light ■ Peripheral vision ■ More sensitive ● Human see the light spectrum of 200 to 750 nanometers ● Lens Focus image on retina ● Pupil Regulate amount of light passing through ● Retina Image projected onto and is upsidedown ● Fovea tiny spot at the center of retina. This spot contain only cones. ● Human adapt to the dark in about 30 minute ● Human adapt to the light in about 30 minute, but could be a little faster ● Optic chiasm The crossover of the optic nerves. ● Feature Detectors ○ Simple cells picky about width, orientation, position ■ Fire the least ○ Complex cells picky about width, orientation ○ Hypercomplex cells picky about width ■ Fire the most Theories of Color Vision ● Trichromatic color mixing of three colors: red, green, and blue. ● Opponent process theory There are three different colors that control color perception. ● The three color work together to display the many blends of color. All three of the color cones have different sensitivity. ● Higher level visual cells respond with complimentary color. Form Perception Theories ● You have feature cells that respond to different lines. Form Analysis Theories ● “The whole is more than the sum of the part” ● Gestalt theory people tend to group together visual element. Gestalt Principles ● Figure/Ground Divide the background and the figure ● Proximity Near = belong ● Similarity Group similar element ● Continuity Connect point or continue line to straight or slightly curve lines. Continuous action. ● Closure Fill in missing info ● Common Region Group object in common region ● Connectedness Groups that are connected Depth Perception ● Binocular cues: ○ Retinal disparity The closer the object, the more different ○ Convergence crosseye ; How much the eye goes to the same point (only close) ● Monocular cues: ○ Linear Perspective As distance increase, parallel lines will converge ○ Relative Size As distance increase, object size decrease ○ Interposition The closer image will block further image ○ Texture Gradient As distance increase, fine detail decrease ○ Height in Plane As distance increase, height increase ○ Shadowing The more darker the shadow, the more deeper/steeper it look ● Faulty InFlight Perception ○ Late at night ○ Reflective surface ○ See thing small further away ● Perceptual Consistency ○ Color ○ Size ○ Shape Auditory System ● The stimulus is soundwave. ○ Amplitude Decibel (dB) ○ Wavelength Pitch in Hertz (Hz) ○ Purity Timbre ● Human hearing capacity is 20 to 20,000 Hz ● Outer ear ○ Pinna ○ Ear canal ● Middle ear ○ Ossicles: Hammer, Anvil, Stirrup ● Inner ear ○ Cochlea ○ Basilar membrane ○ Stereocilia ● Theories of Pitch perception ○ Place theory Where the vibration occur on the membrane. ○ Frequency theory Depend on how much (rate) the membrane is vibrating ○ Entire membrane vibrates, but peak eventually ● Auditory adaptation adapting to sound ● Cochlear implants For impaired ears ○ Connected to temporal lobe. ● Common hearing losses ○ Agerelated: Elderly ○ Occupational: Factory workers, rock musicians ○ Cultural: MP3 players, ipod Gustatory System ● The stimuli is soluble chemical ● Receptors ○ Taste cells on taste buds (in papillae trenches) ● Regeneration ○ 10 days lifespan ● Four primary tastes ○ Sweet ○ Sour ○ Bitter ○ Salty ● Extra ○ Umami ○ Fatty Olfactory System ● The stimuli is soluble chemical ● Receptors ○ Olfactory celia ● Olfactory adaptation Getting use to smell ● Olfactory/gustatory interaction having the perception of flavor. Without the other helping, the taste of food will not be able to be determine. The Tactile System ● The stimuli are ○ Thermal ○ Chemical ○ Mechanical energy (push, pull, etc.) ● Receptors ○ Nerve cell ● Four basic skin senses ○ Temperature ○ Pain ○ Pressure ○ Touch ● Phantom limb the filling of a limb even if it was amputated. ● CIP (Congenital Insensitivity to Pain) inability to feel pain Other ● Kinesthetic System Location/movement of your limb ● Vestibular System Monitor the body in relation to gravity ● Human Factors The study of human behavior, limitation, and other characteristic to the design of human use. ● Synesthesia Cross wiring between senses. When stimulating one sense, it will stimulate another sense at the same time. ● Inattentional blindness Not noticing or have a lack of perception ● ESP (Extrasensory perception) A sixth sense of perception without hearing, seeing, or touching.
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