2/04/16 Structure and Function notes
2/04/16 Structure and Function notes Neuro 3050
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NEUROSC 3000 - 020
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by alvey.15 Notetaker on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Neuro 3050 at Ohio State University taught by Georgia Bishop in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Structure and Function of the Nervous System in Neuroscience at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Structure and Function of Nervous System. Lecture 1/04/2016 by Dr. Bishop. Notes by Alexandra Alvey. Most of the cranial nerve nuclei are in the brain stem. Brain stem is an integrative center of sensory and motor function. The brain stem also serves as a conduit between the spine and brain. All information has to flow through the brain stem to get in and out of the brain and spinal cord. White matter (myelin of axons) will be stained a dark color and gray matter (neuronal cell bodies) will be a in the white region. The region that is light purple contains both neuronal cell bodies and axons. If the cerebellum is removed, then the fourth ventricle is exposed. The obex of the fourth ventricle separates the rostral and caudal medulla on the dorsal side. The rostral medulla is called the “open medulla” because the fourth ventricle extends with it in the rostral direction. The caudal medulla is called the “closed medulla” because the fourth ventricle ends at the obex. Caudal Medulla-Ventral You can tell this is the caudal medulla because it has a rounded shape. The pyramids are stained dark because they are tracts of myelinated axons. The pyramids contain the corticospinal tract. They lie bilateral to the anterior median fissure. Dorsal to the pyramids are the inferior olives which are nuclei that form the olivary tubercles. Caudal Medulla-Dorsal The gracile tubercle lies proximal to the posterior median sulcus so it makes sense that nucleus gracillis lies proximal to the posterior median fissure in the cross section. The nucleus gracillis contains cell bodies and tracts. NG relays general sensory information from the lower limbs. Nucleus cuneatus is ventrally proximal to NG and contains cell bodies and axons as well. The NC carries general sensory information to the brain from the upper limbs. The spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve carries pain and temperature information from the face to the brain. All dorsal nuclei in the caudal medulla are sensory. Spino-medullary junction-ventral You can tell you are at the spino-medullary junction when the gray and white matter start to get the butterfly shape like in the spinal cord. The pyramids extend this far and just dorsal to the anterior median fissure is the pyramidal decussation. Cranial nerve nuclei are not present in the closed medulla. Spino-medullary junction-dorsal The nucleus gracillis, fasciculus gracillis, nucleus cuneate, fasciculus cuneate, spinal nucleus and spinal tract of cranial nerve five extend this far posterior as well. Remember the white areas are the nuclei and the dark stained areas are the fasciculi. Cranial nerve nuclei are not present in the closed medulla. Rostral Medulla-Ventral The pyramids are still bilateral to the anterior median fissure. The inferior olives are very distinct and you can see where they protrude to create the olivary tubercles. The rostral medulla is not round shaped like the caudal medulla. Rostral Medulla- Dorsal The big split at the top of the cross section is the fourth ventricle. Know that during development of the brain stem the motor nuclei get pulled ventrally and medially and the sensory nuclei get pushed laterally. The visceral nuclei are in between the motor and sensory nuclei. The Edinger-Westphal nucleus is associated with the oculomotor nerve’s special visceral efferent. The preganglionic neurons originate in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and the postganglionic neurons are in the ciliary ganglion. The three trigeminal nuclei are not directly related to the three nerve divisions. The nuclei have to do more with specific sensations. The spinal nucleus extends slightly below the obex and receives pain information. The main sensory nucleus is located at the entrance of cranial nerve five and receives general sensory information. The mesencephalic nucleus receives sensory information from the jaw. These are the only sensory neurons that reside in the nucleus and not in a ganglion in the periphery.
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