FAD3343 Lecture Notes for Chapter 3
FAD3343 Lecture Notes for Chapter 3 FAD3343
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Irene Mansour on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FAD3343 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. jeter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see CONTEXTS OF ADULT DEVELOPMENT in Child and Family Studies at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Chapter 3: SOCIAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES IN LATER LIFE - Metaphors for Aging o Mechanistic: development is directed by biology (your body is a machine) o Organic: potential to develop lies w/in ourselves o Information processing: one person’s ability to function (cognitively) different from another based on internal & external sources o Narrative: writing our own stories shaped by experiences Changing your story’s outcome changes the characters in the story o Emergent self: internal choices & motivations o Transcendent self: spiritual, meaning-making - Theories of Development o Theories are an organized, interrelated set of concepts, principals, & assumptions that explain a phenomenon o Theories provide a “lens” in which we can view a phenomenon (i.e. human development) & explain how, why, & in what fashion that phenomenon happens. o Many theories of child & adult development 1. Sigmund Freud—Father of Psychoanalytic Perspective Unconscious psychological forces that affect our thought & behavior (not conscious reason) We are driven by instincts, such as hunger, sex, & aggression The influences that shape us occur w/in our first 8-10 years 2. Carl Jung A young contemporary of Freud One of the first to focus on adult personality development. Shadow: First 30 yrs of life consumed w/ repressed childhood desires After 40, adults develop their internal self-potential through balancing of competing opposites; i.e. love & need for power Gender crossover: as people age, their focus begins to shift on things they were missing out on: Men= relationships instead of career Women= independence instead of mothering Balance of extroversion (self in society) & introversion (interiority). 3. Erik Erikson Developed a full, stage-based model of development throughout the entire lifespan Focused on the development of identity Developed the epigenetic principle, interactions b/t environment & genetics 8 Stage Model of Development: Each stage describes a developmental task or challenge to be accomplished Can be positive or negative resolution of each stage What we gain (or don’t gain) is carried onto the next stage. Infancy (0-1): Trust vs. Mistrust Toddlerhood (1-2): Autonomy vs. Shame Preschool (3-5): Initiative vs. Guilt Childhood (6-11): Industry vs. Inferiority Adolescence (12-19): Identity vs. Role Confusion Young Adulthood (20-40): Intimacy vs. Isolation Middle Adulthood (41-65): Generativity vs. Stagnation Late Adulthood (65+): Integrity vs. Despair ~We revisit stages again through remembering~ 4. Daniel Levison Focused on development in adulthood Life is a series of eras, each of which has its own biopsycho-social character Eras partially overlap, called cross-era transitions (lasting ~5 yrs) Eras form the life-structure: the underlying pattern or design of a person’s life at a given time o Life structures are formed by a person’s relationships w/ others in the external world o Life structure helps us identify, “What is my life like now?” (vs. what kind of person am I? in a personality theory) Examined the role of gender (gender splitting) influencing the seasons of men’s & women’s lives. - Eras, Phases, or Stages o 3 broad stages of the life cycle: young adulthood, middle adulthood, & late adulthood o The distinctions b/t these life periods are somewhat blurred, based upon life experiences. o Generations, or cohorts, may help to define socio-cultural identifications adults may have (w/ language, music, experiences, & memories) 1) Young Adulthood Ages 18-35/40 (depending on source) Physical & psychological separation from family of origin. Have more friends than any other age group Tasks include: to establish an identity, occupation, education, intimate relationships/marriage, home, & kids Goal is to become an independent, autonomous person. 2) Middle Adulthood Ages 35/40-65 Large controversy over the term, “midlife crisis” by Gail Sheeny in late 1970’s. No scientific research to confirm an actual “crisis” More accurate to call it a midlife transition. A time of review & reflection, marked by uncertainty & instability, that results in adaptation. Adaptation may be based upon ego resiliency Tasks may include: launching of children & taking care of aging parents 3) Late Adulthood Ages 65+ Least studied portion of the life course Physical & mental decline are not necessarily part of “normal” aging. Compensations are made; not complete losses. - Nari’s g-ma walking a cart around the store everyday instead of walking outside in the snow Differences b/t young-old, old-old, and oldest-old Tasks include: adjusting to physical changes, retirement, reduced income, & death of family/friends - Transitions in Late Life o Activity theory: the more physical, mental, & social activity, the better adjusted people are Research supports this theory for successful aging (life satisfaction) o Disengagement theory: normal & inevitable to reduce their activity & seek passive roles as they age. o Geotransendence theory: selective investment in some relationships over others o Continuity theory: the personality formed in early life continues throughout life w/ no basic changes
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