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lang. and communication

by: Chanah Fallin

lang. and communication ANTH 1000 - 001

Chanah Fallin

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lecture four covering language and communication
Introduction to Anthropology
Christopher David Berk
Class Notes
Anthropology, berk, Language, communication, Lecture 4
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chanah Fallin on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Christopher David Berk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
Anthro. lecture 4 Language and Communication (Kottack 10, CC 7) 1. features 2. primate 3. non verbal communication 4. four domains of spoken lang. 5. accents, focal vocab and american tongues Lang. -interested in lang (human speech and writing) bc it is our primary means of communication -human capacity obviously rooted in biology. born to speak -human capacity that most enables us to transcend biology. complexity o culture, ability to create culture and pass it on. distinctive features 1. conventionality: symbol and what it symbolizes. recognizes the connections. not fixed, they change through… 2. productivity: create new symbols and new words. generate a new series that cannot be understood by others. new words, new meanings. 3. displacement: not bound to certain places or situation. used to describe things in the past, present, future or never existed at all. not restricted. 4. cultural transmission: transmitted passed on through learning and teaching. *non human primate lang. other species rely on call systems in call systems a particular sounds associated w particular circumstances calls cannot be combined, do not involve displacement, they are fixed and immediate relationship w what they signify no past, present, future/elsewhere -can manipulate symbols -learn sign lang. (ex. water bird: swan…chores? later…bit trainer? “sorry”) - signs referencing other time, place etc. ^cannot speak though. only use american sign lang in social environments that humans have created for them demonstrates a capability for it. foreign lang for non human primates. (like a second lang.) manipulate symbols foreign to them human lang. capacity how did it evolve? FOXP2 gene ^gives humans the ability to speak 150,000 years ago. 1. vocalizations more elaborate 2. symbols more complex 3. social environments that depend on these abilities and encouraged them emerged *lang got more complex-reinforced new habits. do not know how fast lang. developed nonverbal symbols: complex various signs may mean something different in another culture even certain sounds have certain meanings vocalizations and ritual gestures hugs, shake hands, kiss, bow etc? how do you greet people? function without speech four domains 1. sounds used (phonemes; phonology) *phonology: study of speech sounds. what sounds are present and meaningful in given lang. *phonemes: sounds contrast that make a diff. discernible sounds that differentiate meaning (english has about 35) minimal pairs: identical apart from one sound…have different meanings (ex. pit/bit, cat/bat, bit/beat) 2. meaningful combo (morphemes;morphology) 3. systematic combo into phrases (grammar, syntax) 4. meanings derived from previous domains (semantics) *morphology: studies how sounds combine to form words focus: morphemes: words and meaningful pars ex: cats (morpheme 1: cat, m2: its plural) (phonemes are sound, morphemes are meaning) Sociolinguistics *investigates the relationships between social and linguistic variation. *focus on features that vary systematically with social position and situation -style shifts and diglossia: we all vary speech in different contexts (friends vs. professors etc.) ex: german. formal high and low variant (diglossia) refers to the use by a language community of two languages or dialects, a "high" or "H" variety restricted to certain formal situations, and a "low" or "L" variety for everyday interaction. -class: some are cruder or more sophisticated than others. reflect on the way you're judged in society. William Lobov: focused on how “r” is pronounced went to various department stores. their pronunciation would reflect the class level people visiting the stores. saks 5th: 62% , upper middle macys: 51%, middle class 20%, working lower class ^^r pronunciation is associate w prestige. *symbolic capital: social value in how we speak. proper/refined : you pronounce your “r”s. if you don't pronounce your “r”s, you’ll be viewed as lower class or less educated. -gender: men tend to interrupt women more. men use more foul lang, more freely. women use “dainty” lang (precious, lovely, darling, etc) 3 ex. from reading 1. story of don and amy: amy is over don, gives report. report was good, but make changes. he thought he didn't need to make changes bc she said it was “fine” but it was to soften the blow. he viewed it as optional, when they were mandatory. 2. asking for directions: men hate asking for directions. speaks to differences in how men and women view communication. men don't ask because they don't want to put themselves in a positions that reveals they don't know where to go, or that they aren't in control/weak/one down position. 3. female intern: going into med. school working w male doc. regarded as being best of the group. feedback from male doc: he says she's one of the lesser interns. confronts him, and asks him why-she asked too many questions. it indicated that she didn't know as much as the other interns. -ethnicity: different ethnicities in US. English as a second lang. bi lingual. -race: black english vernacular-relative uniform dialect spoken by majority of black americans today. spoken in most rural areas too, and used as casual speech among adults. but this does not mean that every black american speaks BEV. BEV is stigmatized and viewed neg. often: not ungrammatical, its a dialect of english w its own system. ^^bc african americans are often stigmatized in our society. its not because the dialect, its stigmatized bc of the people who speak it. Historical linguistics *relationships btwn lan and groups over time and space *protolanguages, daughter languages, subgroups by looking at daughter lang, you can conclude about parent/protolang. lang part of culture, culture changes over time so lang changes over time how do you test relations between: compare pronunciation of words that mean the same thing in lang. closely related lang will have similar pronunciation of these words. spanish: uno, dos, tres french: un, deux, tu english: one, two, three systematic combinations of morphemes into phrases (grammar, syntax)
 syntax: arrangement and order of words in phrases and sent. -noam chomsky and UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR all human lang share a deep structure^ in our hardwiring? were born w it, to have similar sent structure “colorless green ideas sleep furiously” recognize it as a sentence in its deep structure (noun, verb, subject etc.) but surface structure is gibberish Semantics and reality semantics refers to a lang. meaning system *sapir-whorf hypothesis: edward sapir and ben. whorf -lang shapes our perceptions of reality -diff lang create different realities -no reality that we can perceive that exists ind. of lang. Whorf compared tense use in various lang. english has three tenses: past, present, future hopi has two tenses: events that exist, have existed or events that haven't or don't exist ^think about time and reality in different ways than english speakers “has our lang changed our reality, or has reality changed our lang?” ^are they mutually exclusive? or do they happen at the same time? -reality and lang shape EACH OTHER Accents *we all have accents. -certain stereotypes about how people in other regions talk -regional patterns affect the way we all speak -regional dialect contain different phonemes, namely differences that make a difference. focal vocab certain terms that don't overlap, or translate (beanie, buggy etc) specialized sets of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups gender too: mauve? teal? ex: carbonated beverage: soda? pop?


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