Comm 346 (Strategic Media Management)
Comm 346 (Strategic Media Management) COMM 346-01
U of L
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alli Mayes on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 346-01 at University of Louisville taught by Steve Sohn in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Strategic Media Management in Communication at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Strategic Media Management Audience Concepts/Week 4 What is Audience? Audience is the number of pairs of eyeballs or ears that is exposed to a media vehicle: broadcast, print, or digital -Audience may be exposed to vehicle for seconds, minutes, or hours -Audience may be paying attention or not -Audience may or may not be exposed to any advertising in the media vehicle -Audience may or may not be involved with the content of the media vehicle Audience = A Key Criterion for Media Selection How Media Generate Audiences: Coverage -> Circulation -> Vehicle Audience -> Advertising Audience Coverage: “Coverage” is potential audience, not actual audience The definition of coverage varies by medium: -Broadcast media Geographic area covered by the station’s signals or distribution -Newspapers Number of copies distributed by the newspaper in a defined geographic, divided by the number of households in that area -Magazines % of a demographic group in the average issue audience of the magazine Circulation: Print Media -Number of copies printed/distributed by print media -Paid or free -Audited or unaudited Outdoor -In outdoor, traffic passing by a location (# vehicles or foot traffic) -Circulation is necessary to generate an audience, but is not itself real audience. Vehicle Audience: Vehicle audience is a measure of the number of people (ideally in target group) which is exposed to a media vehicle, however briefly or intently -In television number of TV sets tuned in during the average minute -In magazines number of people who claim to have picked up and looked into an issue of a magazine -In newspapers number of people who claim they read the newspaper -In outdoor Estimate of exposure based on circulation and research projections (Eyes On) Advertising Audience: Advertising audience is the number of people who were in the average vehicle audience and were exposed to the ad or commercial Many reasons why advertising audience is always lower than vehicle audience -TV viewers may channel surf, leave the room, or doing other things when a commercial comes on -A magazine reader may spend only five minutes looking through a 150 page magazine Gross Impressions: Gross Impressions are the total number of potential eye ball contacts with one or more media vehicles carrying an ad(s) Impressions are a gross measure of total exposure because they include duplicated audience -Represent a total counts of the number of exposures or contacts with media vehicles, regardless of the number of times the individuals were exposed to the vehicles 10 individuals exposed once = 10 impressions 1 individual exposed 10 times = 10 impressions Broadcast Ratings: Average Audience Rating (AA) -The percentage of a universe tuned, viewing or listening to a station or program during an average time. -If 10 million of 100 million households are tuned to Myth Busters on the Discovery Channel, the program’s rating would be 10 10,000,000/100,000,000 = 10 % Total Audience Rating (TA) -The percentage of a program’s audience which is tuned for five minutes or more -This explains why the Super Bowl may have a 44 average audience rating and a 60 total audience rating Share of Audience: Share of audience is each viewing/listening alternative’s share of the total available viewing or listening audience at a given time Unlike Ratings, which are based on the total viewing/listening universe --- -Share measures how the viewing or listening pie is divided up among the various options -Example If there are 1000 radio listeners at 8 AM, and if 150 listened to Max-FM, the radio station (Max-FM) has 15% share HUTS/PUTS/PUR & Rating: Household Using TV (HUTS) -% of household watching TV at a given moment Persons Using TV (PUTS) -% of persons watching TV at a given moment Persons Using Radio (PUR) -% of persons listening to a radio at a given moment Rating -Rating = HUTS x Share -Example: If a TV show has 15% share and 50% HUT, Rating = (15 x 50)/100 = 750/100 = 7.5% rating Rating = HUTS or PUTS X Share: You are trying to decide whether to buy into a new show, which you believe, given the weak competition, should get at least a 10% share of audience The question is, how much commercial audience would that show likely generate for the money spent? If HUTS are 55% and the estimated share is 10%, the projected rating would be 5.5 in your geographic area If there are 100,000 households in your area and 5.5% watch that show, it would reach, on average, 5,500 households Gross Rating Points (GRPS): GRPS = Sum of ratings in a defined geographic area National, region, local market, etc. A measure of gross media weight sometimes used to compare media plans -“Media schedule A delivers 1000 GRPS” but-- -“Media schedule B delivers 1250 GRPS” Based on households not people -But how many of you have ever seen a household buy something? That’s why we have a better measure of gross media weight, which is TRP Target Rating Points (TRPS): TRPS – same concept as GRPS but, TRPS are based on people, not households TRPS = Sum of Target Audience ratings in a defined geographic area TRPS can be based on gender, demographics, a behavior lifestyle or any measured population and audience Should be based on your target audience as much as possible -Example: TRPS Men 18+ 100 Women 18-34 150 I-Phone users 135 Reach & Frequency: Purpose -Has your campaign had a good opportunity to be seen– by enough different people and often enough to have an impact “Are we getting the word out”? Reach -Reach is the net percentage of the target universe reached one or more times by a media schedule -Only measure exposure to the media vehicle itself, not the ad itself -Frequency -Frequency is the average number of times those persons are “reached” by media vehicles in media schedule -Measures intensity of media schedule Net Reach = Media Vehicle A + Media Vehicle B – Duplicated Audience (C) Frequency Distribution: Beware of Average Frequency Some people are reached with more than the average frequency, while others are reached with below average frequency Effective Reach & Frequency: Optimized reach and frequency so the message will be most effective Optimum reach/frequency should fall between minimum level and wear-out point to be most effective -Suggested 3 – 10 exposure rule -But---, nobody really knows… Food for thoughts: when to concentrate on the reach over frequency or frequency over reach? -If you want to modify behavior/attitude, frequency is more important -But if you want to make people aware, reach should be the focal point Reach, Frequency & GRP: The most important formulas in Media Planning -GRPS = Reach x Frequency -Frequency = GRPS/Reach -Reach = GRPS/Frequency Print Audiences: Average Issue Audience -Average issue audience is a measure of the number of people who are estimated to be in the audience of the average issue of a publication Primary Audience -Purchasers of a publication and their families -Have been found to read more of the publication Pass-Along Audience -Audience generated from exposure in public places, other people’s homes, etc. -These readers are exposed to a smaller percentage of pages, spend less time- -Total Audience -The sum of primary and pass-along audience -Most planners use this measure to compare magazines Will not be an effective planning Out of Home Audiences: Traffic counts and surveys defining the number and demographics of passengers who pass by different outdoor locations Had no credibility with media professionals who questioned the validity of the audience measures which justified paying very low prices Media people have been concerned about whether the outdoor audience actually saw outdoor boards Today, the outdoor industry has launched a new measurement methodology (Eyes On) which on the basis of perceptual research and modeling, attempts to project advertising exposure to each outdoor board Digital Media (Internet): Impression -Numbers of total exposure to your search results, ad, sponsored link, etc. Clicks -Those who clicks on ad or linked commercial message -Click-through rate (CTR) Impression / number of clicks Hits -Those who clicks on web contents Unique visitor -Number of people who view a website but counted only once no matter how many time they view it Page view -Gross number of times a particular web pages are accessed Conversion -Number or % of people who visit a website and to take action
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