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Latino Art in the US - Week 2

by: sconsidine

Latino Art in the US - Week 2 ARTH 28700

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Art History > ARTH 28700 > Latino Art in the US Week 2
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These are the notes for Latino Art in the US for Week 2 (February 1-5).
Latino Art in the US
Professor Jennifer Jolly
Class Notes
Art History
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by sconsidine on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 28700 at Ithaca College taught by Professor Jennifer Jolly in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Latino Art in the US in Art History at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
February 1, 2016 - Unit 1 Chicano Art Chicano Movement (1960s - ) “El Movimiento” -Chicano Art Movement divided into two parts -1968 - 1975 (phase 1) -1975 - today (institutionalized) -Chicano -political identity, all about power/power struggle -associated with Mexican-Americans -Chicano Movement aligns with: -Civil Rights Movement -Feminist Movement -Cuban Revolution -Native American/American Indian Movement -Anti-War Movement -Labor Movement (particularly United Farm Workers) -Students and Education 1) Civil Rights Movement (1956 - ) -images: -Antonio Bernal, Mural for the Teatro Compesino, Del Rey, CA (1968) -shows historical figures - activating history to give their movement roots -Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa, Zapatos, Murieta -carry on Mexican Revolution ideals -Labor Movement: Chavez, Lopez -Chavez - worked with Farm Workers Movement -Lopez - lawyer for land claims for historical Mexico -Civil Rights Movement: MLK Jr. and Malcom X/Black Panthers figure -show two ideals when dealing with resistance in peaceful protest and using violent action when necessary -mural used to claim identity -done on United Farm Workers’ Theater -Danny Aguilar, Liberty for Angela Davis, poster (1971) -Angela Davis was an activist with Black Panthers, arrested for communism -shows a shared civil rights struggle 2) United Farm Works Movement (1962 - ) -Cesar Chavez -trying to advocate for migrant worker rights -“Si se puede”; thunderbird -two keys to movement -“Si se puede” - slogan for “Yes, we can” -thunderbird became a reference/symbol for workers’ movement -images: -Salvador Torres, Viva La Raza (1964) -painting -Andy Zermeno, Don Sotaco from El Macriado (1960s) -cartoon showing worker being used by landowner/authoritative figure -Teatro Campesino, f. 1965 -theater group -perform where there are strikes/protests to entertain/boost morale -Juana Alicia, Lettuce Workers mural, San Francisco (1983) -show unsafe pesticide use right on to workers in the field -spraying pregnant women who were working -utilized mural so that public can see it and it will raise awareness 3) Cuban Revolution (1959 - ) -images: -Alfredo Rostgaard, Cancion Protesta -anti-war poster -Silkscreens by Rupert Garcia -silkscreen is working with blocks of color -bold, usually abstract images -made posters because they could be mass produced 4) Vietnam War (1964 - 1972) -disproportionate numbers of people of color were drafted to fight in Vietnam -very different views on the war from political parties in the U.S. -National Moratorium, L.A., 1970 -calling for a stop to war -images: -National Moratorium posters and photos -celebrating/announcing the Moratorium - artists participating in protests -Malaquias Montoya, Viet Nam Aztlan, 1973 -silkscreen -shows similarity between the Vietnamese struggle and the Mexican-American struggle with oppression -parallel symmetry -2 figures representing the Vietnamese and Chicanos are literally linked through use of color -Frank Romero, Death of Ruben Salazar, 1985-1986 -National Moratorium turned violent -police tried to quell protests -police ended up killing prominent journalist, Ruben Salazar 5) Student Movement -L.A. High School Blowout, 1969 -schools were not teaching history of California -that it was once a Mexican territory -high dropout rates because students felt education did not relate/help with their lives -image: -David Botello, Read Between the Lines, mural (1975) -Mexicans being indoctrinated into American culture -watching American/patriotic movie -little boy learns the history of Mexico with Aztec/Mayan figure -was not revealed to him in his education -boy grows up and is being brainwashed -stripped of all clothes that define him as Mexican -being pushed to sign contract about assimilation -education can be a foil to pressures to assimilate -a lot at stake with how someone is educated February 3, 2016 Aztlan - Aztec term for “homeland” -ancient meaning - Aztec origin story (13th-15th century) -radical nationalist (anti-imperialist) agenda - “La Raza” (1969-70s) -post modern alternative - “nepantla” - place in between, of becoming -in all contexts - metaphor for unity with longing/belonging and pride in origins -images: -Emanuel Martinez and co, La Alma, Denver, 1977 -puts ancient figure next to present day -drawing comparisons with parallel symmetry -eagle - Aztec and U.S. symbol -quote past to empower present day people -Jose González, La Raza de Oro (L.A. mural) -Aztlan - place of the Herons -Aztec migration, c. 13th century A.D. -historia tolteca - Chichimeca -Codex Boturini, 16th century -Huitzilopochtli - most important Aztec deity -relationship between Mesoamerican and Southwest people -part Aztec myth and reality -Greater Mesoamerican Question -art and archaeology -Aztec reality - trade with Southwest -turquoise and feather trade -Southwest - Mesoamerican ties -theory that Southwest people and Mesoamericans have shared origins from 1500 B.C. -developed independently over the years, linked by trade and shared beliefs -linguistic and artistic evidence -ex. art, deity gods, symbols are very similar -does shared history make land borders arbitrary -competing ideas: ancestral ownership, citizenship, legitimacy Chicanos -Huitzilopochtli, Casa Aztlan, Chicago (Chicano community center) -metaphor for a home -1969 Chicano Youth Conference in Denver -wrote manifesto - rules/objectives outlining vision that goes hand in hand with activism and art -Plan Espiritual de Aztlan -Plan Espiritual de Aztlan -Chicano nationalism - bring people together, unity -imperialism in relation to Aztlan is through literal geography -want old land back (U.S. Southwest) -separatist movement -education reform - historically relevant to individuals -community self-defense - defend our own communities that are constantly threatened -brings up idea of revolutionaries vs. delinquent -revolutionaries - often viewed as good -in America brings up idea of American Revolution -delinquents - also challenge authority, but have a negative connotation -whether someone is a revolutionary or a delinquent is dependent upon who is labeling the person -economic independence, self-determination, reparations -anti-imperialism message -political liberation -culture (“art that is appealing to our people and related to our revolutionary culture”) -Plan Espiritual de Aztlan seems radical but it is also justified -shows similarities between Declaration of Independence and other similar documents Being “Chicano” and Being “Indian” -Is difference culture, appearance or blood? -images: -James Luna, Half Indian and Half Mexican -what are boundaries between being Indian and being Mexican -conflict presented is Southwest California Indian reservation -indigenous people were colonized by the Mexicans who were then invaded by U.S. so, where does identity lie -pictures look like mugshots -symbolic in they allow you to classify someone, also representative of authority -right side looks Chicano, left side looks Indian -center image shows that its the same person -depends on our own perceptions -like neplanta - shows an in-between -artist is comfortable with that in-between -outsiders feel the need to try and identity -intersectionality - idea that many different identities can intersect while coexisting -images: -Enrique Chagoya, Friendly Cannibals (1996, with Tlaloc), Uprising of the Spirit (1994) -shows the struggle with identity February 5, 2016 Spiritual Geography of the Southwest 1) Spanish Colonization and “Mestizaje” -“Mestizaje” means mixing 2) Public and Domestic Catholicism -altars -Santos: Retablos and Bultos -intercessors -Virgin of Guadalupe 3) Today: Spirituality as Resistance? -cultural memory with practice and symbols -visible Catholic presence counters dominant American Protestant culture and also counters assimilation (ex. JFK as first Catholic President) -Spanish Conquest of New Mexico - Camino Real (Royal Road) -1540 - exploration begins -Catholic conversion of indigenous people -pro of using religion: message from a higher power, can weaken resistance of indigenous people if they accept the religion -1680 - Pueblo Revolt -Pueblos was a term used by Spanish to describe indigenous people -revolt pushed the Spanish out of the territory -1694 - Recolonization begins -more interested in mixing culture rather than forcing Spanish culture on indigenous people -images: -San Jose Mission, Old Laguna Pueblo, 17th Century -Rederos (altarpieces) -intercessor -Trinity -San José -indigenous people actually make the art with Spanish program of what art should be of -purpose of art in church: -teach Catholic concepts -provide intercessors -pray to saint who then gives message to God, ex. pray to San José -figures are easily recognizable -indigenous people add things distinct to their own beliefs -painted ceilings with rainbow and moon -represents holy forces for indigenous people -integration of cultures -image: -Domestic Altar, 19th century (Counter-Reformation, 16th century) -household art - altar -have bultos (statues), retablos (small images of saint) -leave offering (candles, flowers, food) on alters - indigenous traditions -bultos -Hano Clow Kachina, c. 1930 (indigenous) -Felix Lopez, Virgin of Guadalupe, 1997 (SANTO) -retablos -Tesuque Pueblo Shield (indigenous) -San Juan Nepomuceno retablo, 18th century (SANTO) -most recognized/popular image is that of the Virgin of Guadalupe -found in public churches and private homes -Virgin of Guadalupe = Virgin Mary -images: -both describe the Virgin Mary -Our Lady of Sorrows, 19th century -very common, dagger piercing hearth during crucifixion of Jesus -Virgin of the Immaculate Conception (La Immaculate) -on crescent moon - shows her purity and that she is without original sin -Virgin of Guadalupe story -image of Virgin Mary appeared to a humble farmer named Juan Diego who was told to build a chapel -she spoke in Aztec language and was on Aztec ground -the bishop did not believe Juan Diego -Virgin Mary appeared again and gave him a sign of his cloak filled with roses (no roses in Americas) and an image of herself on his cloak -Virgin of Guadalupe - indigenous variation on Virgin Mary -ultimate symbol of Mestizaje -images: -original -created by the Virgin herself -standing on crescent moon, blazing light around her, prayerful posture, modestly dressed -Anon. Mexican, Virgin of Guadalupe, 19th century -Pedro Antonio Fresquis, Our Lady of Guadalupe, c. 1780-1830 -Jose Benito Ortega, Virgin of Guadalupe, c. 1875-1890 -same key attributes between them (roses, pose, crescent moon, shining light, etc.) -Virgin of Guadalupe is the patron saint of the Americas, symbol of Mexico -her image later became politicized -images: -Carmen Lomas Garza, Faith Healer (Curandera), 1989 -local healer in house -domestic altar (light candle to virgin, flowers, portrait of deceased family members) -Amalia Mesa-Bains, Ofrenda for Dolores Del Rio, 1984 -installation art - artist actually installs a whole setup -figure in altar is Dolores Del Rio - Mexican film star who was popular in Hollywood -offerings for her are lace, perfume -shows that she is someone worth idolizing, parallels between film idol and religious idol -same reverence as with Virgin Mary -Delilah Montoya, La Guadalupana, 1998, 1999 -15 ft. photo mural -installation art - at base of mural is a household altar -2 themes: saints and sinners -Mexican prisoner - handcuffed, jumpsuit, black and white -bars imprisoning him are off center to show human error -image of Virgin of Guadalupe on his back, only color part of the black and white - shows sainthood -photos in color show different males with tattoos of the Virgin -have to look up at the image as in worship -relates back to Catholic religion like murals in church -resistance through spirituality theme -religion helping him to stand tall with pride even under oppression -image of Virgin is like a form of protection -tattoos - shows a permanence and connection with that saint/image -can’t take away faith no matter how much they are oppressed


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