chapter1and2lecturenotes.pdf HIST 201-01
Popular in Colonial America to 1815
Popular in History
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlyn Windhorst on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 201-01 at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. William Bergmann in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Colonial America to 1815 in History at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Europe and Expansion to 1492 Europe’s place in the world Vikings Western European themes: o Centralization of state power o Military o Economic elaboration Portugal and Spain Europe’s Place in the World Not technological, smart (isolated) Asia and Middle East had all Was uninfluential went to a powerhouse of the world o Wealth from Americas o Stole two continents from Native Americans o Stole labor (Africans and Native’s as slaves) Ptolemy’s Map, 2 century (Ancient Rome and Greece) Vikings Scandinavian influences over 811 centuries (they are not centralized) Like to explore Settled in Greenland Medieval optimum (better, hospitable environment) o Erick the Red o Leif Erikkson Detail of Olaus Magnus map (1539) o Scarylaibs (shorter, smaller, the eskimos) th th o 13 , 14 century, environment in Greenland less hospitable, they leave Western European Themes Centralized state power o Naional states o Into the hand of government / monarch o Concentrating political power and authority (for war) Military o Centralization of military power o Same time as state power o War against Muslim empires (the Middle East) o Crusades (to fulfill religious) o Taxes for everyone to pay for food and other essentials that the military needs o Power, influence, land for country Spain o 756 AD Islamic rule over religion for the most part Portugal and Spain o Reconquista Christian reconquest of religion 8 century 15 century o Iberian Peninsula What later becomes Portugal and Spain o 9401036 AD expansion to South Consolidation of kingdoms o 8 century – 15 century Consolidations and merger of kingdoms Portugal created 1492 Spain created Castile becomes Spain Aragon and Castile merged (Isabelle and King of Castile married) o Portugal (important trader in Indian Ocean why Columbus sailed) Poor, fishing economy (isolated from war) Exploration around Africa (find a path around) for power and economics After sailing around Africa to India Black pepper sold at lower cost North America to 1492 Anasazi o Example: Chaco Canyon Mississippian Culture Complex o Example: Canokia th Eastern North America at the end of the 15 century Anasazi Shared common beliefs but weren’t just one people Like a city (localized control) Emerged around 700 A.D. Chaco Canyon 900 A.D. (C.E.*) o *C.E. = common era o *B.C.E. = before common era Chaco Canyon (12 miles long, about 12 large towns) o Multitiered (storage, sleeping, cooking) o Circles – granaries, spiritual stations Many connections (roads) leading out of the canyon to other towns (Pueblo Alto and Bonito) o roads are pretty straight over great distances (lkie the rugged terrain, canyons, mountains) sea shells (gulf), bird feathers (middle of America), minerals and ores (Chaco Canyon wasn’t regionally isolated) 12 – 14 century o (drought, famine, warfare) Medieval Clime Optimum o 900 A.D. – 1300 A.D. o Made it warm for the Anasazi to build and live o Caused black death and plagues Little ice age o 1300 – 19 century Mississippian Culture Complex “Mound Builder” Burial grounds ritual sites (mounds of large dirt) 1000 A.D. (medieval optimum) o Introduction of beans (created land corn) o 3 sisters (corn, bean, squash) There are health benefits when the three are grown together They support one another Each site has local control Canokia o Center of 9 larger settlements and 40 smaller settlements o 30 – 40,000 people o Same size as medieval London Monks Mound o Base – 16 acres o Multiple tiers 14 century o Drought, warfare, population center declines End of medieval optimum North America Prior to Contact Process of reorganization Anasazi – moved east to Rio Grande River Valley – smaller settlements population increase larger, fewer settlements Mississippian Sites – many Indians we know today as they reorganize o Choctaw, Creek o Iroquois, Palatine (Confederacy of Indians) The Colombian Exchange Humans* Animals* Plants* Pathogens* o * from old world new world with Columbus Humans Giovannstda Verazzano st o 1 explorer but not 1 European in the area o Mi’Kmag (Micmac) Only want metalsmith materials European’s can make Know disease comes from Europeans Disease follows pathways of trade (Native American’s realized quickly) Animals Horses, cattle, sheep, goats, swine Used as work animals, food, clothes (sheep wool) Intentional and accidental bringing of animals o Accidental – insects Spanish – leave male and female pigs on islands to breed (plentiful food source no matter where) o Damage environment (agriculture of Native Americans) No horses on North America (or South) prior to contact o Horses took well to America (feral herds adapted, grew, and spread out) Horses define Native Americans even though they only had them for a few centuries Swine, honey bee (pollinate plants) o Bees created hives everywhere Rats (accidental) Plants Shepherds purse, dandelion, sow thistle, wild artichoke o Weeds Wouldn’t turn to corn wanted wheat o Just like how they brought the pigs over Complained about common European weeds (which came by accident) that overtook their fields (and Native American fields – became unfamiliar) Kentucky – blue grass – was overtaken by it before the settlers even reached Kentucky o Changed the landscape Continent Food Calorie / Hectare* Americas Cassava 9.9 million Maize 7.3 million Potatoes 7.5 million Europe Wheat 4.2 million Barley 5.1 million Oats 5.5 million Hectare* 2.5 acres Only focus on one crop and don’t have options to turn to (Ireland – potato famine) Pathogens o Small pox, measles, tuberculosis o Spread quickly through Americas o Had no exposure to diseases o Killed large numbers of Native Americans o Small level encounters could spread disease o Pilgrims found abandoned Indian Village – thought the place was an act of God since no trees had to bthcut down o Decline of Indian populations until end of 19 centuries (they are increasing once more) o Agriculture, Village, Land o Affected these around them The Spanish Empires and the North American Frontier Spanish claims, Spanish exploration Encomienda to Repartimiento New Spain’s Northern Frontier Pueblo responses to Spanish presence The pueblo revolt (1680) Spanish reconquest of its Northern Frontier Spanish Claims and Explorations Takeover is violent Natives in Caribbean became slaves Mapped out Caribbean Islands 1515 – became interested in South America o Cortes explores and attacks Aztecs o Immense wealth gathered from mainland o Remains of Mayans Assert power and control over Americas o By exploration Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) o Treaty between Portugal and Spain Brazil – Portugal speaking Rest of South America – Spanish speaking Practical control is critical (have a physical presence and defend that presence) Reconquista 8 to 15 century Reformation 16 century Protestants Encomienda System Land Labor (of inhabitants) $ from tax o NOT Slavery Christianization of inhabitants o Missionaries (wrote back to king) critiqued civil leaders (butted heads quite a bit) Used the reformation to make /enforce what they wanted pushed through Tax inhabitants lord king 1540 try to remove Encomienda System Repartimiento System Natives to bring forth a group of laborers for Spanish Regime Replaced Encomienda System in 1550 Ordinances of Discovery (1573) No violence, wants peace Missionaries on frontline of expansion New Spain’s Northern Frontier Don Juan Oriate o Puebloan Control 15981680 o Population 100,000 people disease, drought, famine, war 17,000 people Franciscans (associated with Spanish, ultimately answer to pope) missionaries o Want conversions (catholic) o Placed churches over their spiritual centers o Killed 3 spiritual leaders Pueblos o Used both to fulfill their needs Too harsh churches complain to order Violating labor laws they created complain to missionaries Excommunicated 3 governors of the Kingdom of New Mexico 1660’s set of droughts which led to famine which then led to disease o Were vicious cycles
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