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by: Caitlyn Windhorst

chapter1and2lecturenotes.pdf HIST 201-01

Caitlyn Windhorst
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Notes from 01/20/16 to 02/03/16 Chapter 1 and 2 lecture notes
Colonial America to 1815
Dr. William Bergmann
Class Notes
Europe Expansion to 1492, North America to 1492, Colombian Exchange, Spanish Empires and North American Frontier




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlyn Windhorst on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 201-01 at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. William Bergmann in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Colonial America to 1815 in History at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
Europe and Expansion to 1492  Europe’s place in the world   Vikings   Western European themes: o Centralization of state power o Military  o Economic elaboration   Portugal and Spain  Europe’s Place in the World  Not technological, smart (isolated)  Asia and Middle East had all  Was uninfluential  went to a powerhouse of the world  o Wealth from Americas o Stole two continents from Native Americans  o Stole labor (Africans and Native’s as slaves)  Ptolemy’s Map, 2  century (Ancient Rome and Greece) Vikings  Scandinavian influences over 8­11 centuries (they are not  centralized)  Like to explore   Settled in Greenland   Medieval optimum (better, hospitable environment) o Erick the Red o Leif Erikkson  Detail of Olaus Magnus map (1539) o Scarylaibs (shorter, smaller, the eskimos) th th o 13 , 14  century, environment in Greenland less hospitable,  they leave Western European Themes   Centralized state power  o Naional states  o Into the hand of government / monarch  o Concentrating political power and authority (for war)  Military  o Centralization of military power  o Same time as state power  o War against Muslim empires (the Middle East) o Crusades (to fulfill religious) o Taxes for everyone to pay for food and other essentials that  the military needs  o Power, influence, land for country   Spain o 756 AD  Islamic rule over religion for the most part Portugal and Spain o Reconquista   Christian reconquest of religion   8  century  15  century  o Iberian Peninsula   What later becomes Portugal and Spain  o 940­1036 AD expansion to South   Consolidation of kingdoms  o 8  century – 15  century   Consolidations and merger of kingdoms   Portugal created   1492 Spain created  Castile becomes Spain  Aragon and  Castile merged (Isabelle and King of Castile married) o Portugal (important trader in Indian Ocean  why Columbus  sailed)  Poor, fishing economy (isolated from war)   Exploration around Africa (find a path around) for power and economics   After sailing around Africa to India   Black pepper sold at lower cost  North America to 1492  Anasazi  o Example: Chaco Canyon  Mississippian Culture Complex o Example: Canokia th  Eastern North America at the end of the 15  century  Anasazi   Shared common beliefs but weren’t just one people   Like a city (localized control)  Emerged around 700 A.D.   Chaco Canyon 900 A.D. (C.E.*) o *C.E. = common era o *B.C.E. = before common era  Chaco Canyon (12 miles long, about 12 large towns) o Multitiered (storage, sleeping, cooking) o Circles – granaries, spiritual stations   Many connections (roads) leading out of the canyon to other towns (Pueblo Alto and Bonito) o roads are pretty straight over great distances (lkie the rugged  terrain, canyons, mountains)  sea shells (gulf), bird feathers (middle of America), minerals and  ores (Chaco Canyon wasn’t regionally isolated)  12  – 14  century o  (drought, famine, warfare)  Medieval Clime Optimum  o 900 A.D. – 1300 A.D. o Made it warm for the Anasazi to build and live  o Caused black death and plagues   Little ice age  o 1300 – 19  century  Mississippian Culture Complex  “Mound Builder”   Burial grounds  ritual sites (mounds of large dirt)  1000 A.D. (medieval optimum) o Introduction of beans (created land  corn) o 3 sisters (corn, bean, squash)   There are health benefits when the three are grown  together  They support one another   Each site has local control   Canokia  o Center of 9 larger settlements and 40 smaller settlements  o 30 – 40,000 people  o Same size as medieval London   Monks Mound  o Base – 16 acres  o Multiple tiers   14  century  o Drought, warfare, population center declines   End of medieval optimum  North America Prior to Contact  Process of reorganization   Anasazi – moved east to Rio Grande River Valley – smaller  settlements  population increase  larger, fewer settlements  Mississippian Sites – many Indians we know today as they  reorganize  o Choctaw, Creek  o Iroquois, Palatine (Confederacy of Indians)    The Colombian Exchange   Humans*  Animals*  Plants*  Pathogens* o * from old world  new world with Columbus  Humans   Giovannstda Verazzano  st o 1  explorer but not 1  European in the area  o Mi’Kmag (Micmac)  Only want metalsmith materials European’s can make   Know disease comes from Europeans   Disease follows pathways of trade (Native American’s realized  quickly) Animals  Horses, cattle, sheep, goats, swine  Used as work animals, food, clothes (sheep wool)  Intentional and accidental bringing of animals  o Accidental – insects  Spanish – leave male and female pigs on islands to breed (plentiful food source no matter where) o Damage environment (agriculture of Native Americans)  No horses on North America (or South) prior to contact  o Horses took well to America (feral herds adapted, grew, and  spread out)  Horses define Native Americans even though they only had them  for a few centuries   Swine, honey bee (pollinate plants) o Bees created hives everywhere  Rats (accidental) Plants   Shepherds purse, dandelion, sow thistle, wild artichoke  o Weeds  Wouldn’t turn to corn  wanted wheat  o Just like how they brought the pigs over   Complained about common European weeds (which came by  accident) that overtook their fields (and Native American fields –  became unfamiliar)  Kentucky – blue grass – was overtaken by it before the settlers  even reached Kentucky  o Changed the landscape  Continent  Food  Calorie / Hectare* Americas Cassava  9.9 million Maize  7.3 million Potatoes 7.5 million Europe Wheat 4.2 million Barley 5.1 million Oats  5.5 million Hectare* ­ 2.5 acres   Only focus on one crop and don’t have options to turn to (Ireland – potato famine) Pathogens o Small pox, measles, tuberculosis o Spread quickly through Americas  o Had no exposure to diseases o Killed large numbers of Native Americans  o Small level encounters could spread disease  o Pilgrims found abandoned Indian Village – thought the place was  an act of God since no trees had to bthcut down  o Decline of Indian populations until end of 19  centuries (they are  increasing once more) o Agriculture, Village, Land  o Affected these around them The Spanish Empires and the  North American Frontier   Spanish claims, Spanish exploration  Encomienda to Repartimiento   New Spain’s Northern Frontier  Pueblo responses to Spanish presence   The pueblo revolt (1680)  Spanish reconquest of its Northern Frontier  Spanish Claims and Explorations   Takeover is violent Natives in Caribbean became slaves  Mapped out Caribbean Islands   1515 – became interested in South America o Cortes explores and attacks Aztecs  o Immense wealth gathered from mainland  o Remains of Mayans   Assert power and control over Americas  o By exploration   Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) o Treaty between Portugal and Spain   Brazil – Portugal speaking   Rest of South America – Spanish speaking   Practical control is critical (have a physical presence and defend  that presence) Reconquista   8  to 15  century  Reformation  16  century  Protestants Encomienda System   Land   Labor (of inhabitants) $ from tax o NOT Slavery   Christianization of inhabitants  o Missionaries (wrote back to king)  critiqued civil leaders  (butted heads quite a bit)  Used the reformation to make /enforce what they  wanted pushed through  Tax inhabitants lord  king   1540  try to remove Encomienda System  Repartimiento System  Natives to bring forth a group of laborers for Spanish Regime   Replaced Encomienda System in 1550 Ordinances of Discovery (1573)  No violence, wants peace   Missionaries on frontline of expansion  New Spain’s Northern Frontier   Don Juan Oriate  o Puebloan   Control 1598­1680 o Population 100,000 people  disease, drought, famine, war   17,000 people   Franciscans (associated with Spanish, ultimately answer to pope)  missionaries  o Want conversions (catholic) o Placed churches over their spiritual centers o Killed 3 spiritual leaders  Pueblos  o Used both to fulfill their needs   Too harsh churches  complain to order  Violating labor laws they created  complain to  missionaries    Ex­communicated 3 governors of the Kingdom of New Mexico   1660’s  set of droughts which led to famine which then led to  disease  o Were vicious cycles  


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