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by: Mikaela Maldonado

BMSWeek3LectureNotes.pdf BMS 260

Mikaela Maldonado
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

I claim no rights to the material covered in lecture by Dr. RV Anthony. All notes are my own based on lecture and textbook material.
Biomedical Sciences
Dr. Russell Anthony
Class Notes
Biology, Science, nervous system, neurons, Biomedical Sciences, veterinary medicine
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 260 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Russell Anthony in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Biomedical Sciences in Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 02/06/16
Nervous System-General  The nervous and the endocrine systems are the two main regulatory systems in the body  Central Nervous System o Brain, spinal cord, interneurons o Where cells originate and their function tells actually what system things are a part of o Forebrain  Cerebrum, diencephalon  Diencephalon – thalamus, hypothalamus o Thalamus – synaptic relay station info from cerebrum to hypothalamus, cerebellum, brainstem o Hypothalamus – regulation of water balance, diet, sex; regulated the pituitary gland (master gland of the endocrine system o Midbrain  Connection from forebrain to brainstem o Hindbrain  Cerebellum, pons, midbrain, medulla oblongata o Gray and white matter in the brain  Gray (dendrites) is not myelinated and white (axons) is myelinated (fat) inside  Peripheral Nervous System o Autonomic  Involuntary  Enteric  Parasympathetic/sympathetic systems o Somatic  Voluntary  Afferent o Transmit info towards the CNS  Efferent o Transmit information from the CNS to motor neurons  Interneurons o CNS; relexes, integrators and signal changes  Neuron – nerve cell  Nerve – bundle of nerve processes within the peripheral nervous system  Tracts of fasciculi – bundles of nerve processes in the CNS  Group of nerve cell bodies in PNS – ganglia  Group of nerve cell bodies in CNS – nuclei Moving neurotransmitters Along the length of the axon of a neuron neurotransmitter can be carried to the locations where they can be put into effect. The center of the axon is filled with microtubules along with DYNEIN and KINESIN “walk” Dynein – walks towards the cell body and carries recycled membrane vesicles; molecular motor protein that move endocytotic vesicles to nerve cell body Kinesin – walks towards the axon terminal carrying secretory vesicles; molecular motor protein that moves exocytosis vesicles to axon terminals Myelinated neurons Support cells of the nervous system CNS – oligodendrocytes PNS – schwann cells Both of these cells are filled with myelin (fatty material) Gaps are known as Nodes of Ranvier -> to speed up conduction of impulses – jumping of the electrical current aka salutatory conduction Somatic motor nerve – myelinated (thick) – thicker the myelination the faster the speed of conduction Glial cells Support cells (90% of the cell numbers in the CNS and about 50% of the mass) Oligodendrocytes Microglia – macrophage – like in function – immune support especially for the CNS Astrocytes – provide gap junctions with neurons attached to blood vessels – nutrient support to the nerve cells Astrocytes contribute to the blood brain barrier – protect nerve cells – nutrients through capillaries taken in and distributes by the astrocytes Ependymal cells – line fluid cavities of the CNS and contribute to cerebral spinal fluid Limbic system Learning, emotion, appetite (visceral functions), sex Cerebellum – coordinated movement, close proximity with the brainstem so does need to travel through the brain for access Brainstem – relay info, regulated and coordinated involuntary bodily functions Vertebrae Dorsal white cord  proprioceptive information from joints, etc. to tell the brain where you are  afferent only  messages travel up the spinal cord Lateral white cord  to and from cerebellum  functions in coordination, locomotion, pain  afferent and efferent tracts Ventral white cord  efferent only; involved in voluntary movement Peripheral Nervous System Somatic/spinal nerves/motor neurons  myelinated  single neuron between the Central Nervous System and the skeletal muscle cells  innervated skeletal muscle  involved primarily with muscle excitation Autonomic  2 neuron chain (linked by synapses) between CNS and effector organ  innervated smooth and cardiac muscle, glands, GI neurons  can be excitatory or inhibitory  sympathetic o thoracic and lumbar outflow  parasympathetic o cranial and sacral outflow  enteric systems  ^all three systems above work against each other for regulation purposes Spinal Nerve Proper  mixed nerve  ventral root – efferent  dorsal root – afferent  dorsal root ganglion – where cell bodies reside; not actually within the spinal cord Cranial Nerves (parasympathetic) (12 total nerves) Parasympathetic  stimulate digestion (vegetative “calm”)  long myelinated preganglionic fibers  short myelinated post ganglionic fibers  ganglion – group of nerve cell bodies in PNS  cranial and sacral nerves Sympathetic  fight or flight (inhibit vegetative response)  short preganglionic myelinated fibers  long postganglionic unmyelinated fibers  prevertebral ganglion on ventral side on spinal cord (row of ganglions)  thoracic and lumbar Action Potential  “all or none” electrical activity  sequence of changes in membrane potential  due to operation of voltage gated Na+/K+ channels o Na+ high on outside o K+ high on inside o Net + charge on the outside of the cell membrane  Resting membrane potential (-70 mV)  Threshold potential o Has to be crossed to get an action potential o ~20-30 mV (more positive as compared to resting potential) o depolarization  moving sodium into the cell in comparison to resting membrane potential  voltage gated sodium channels open Na+ into cells o Plateau  +30 mV  amount of Na+ moving into the cell stops  maximum plateau is +60mV o repolarization  K+ channels open and K+ moves to the outside o Hyperpolarization  Close K+ channels  But Na+/K+ ATPase pump activated to help balance things out again  ATPase pump uses 40% of the ATP produced by the cell  Polarization of the membrane occurs… o Negatively charged anions (proteins, etc) on the inside of the PM set up most of the polarity  All or non action potential – can’t make half or 3/4ths, all will end up plateauing at the same point, at same speed until it reaches the end  Sodium is greater and quicker than potassium movement o Takes longer to repolarize o Nerve is refracted during that time – refractory period Guest Lecture on Veterinary Medicine rd CSU is ranked 3 in the country Research and medicine, world renowned facilities and knowledge base Head of student support is Ashley Stokes Scholarships - $1 million per year but $4000/ student average Combined programs offered – MBA, MPH, PHD The school is looking for o Strong academic performance o Upper division science o Manage a robust workload  Credit load can be a lot ~ 24 credits rd th  3 year halfrdime in clinics, 4 year full time clinics  spring of 3 year is when track is selected  Study a little bit for each class each day o Good vet qualities  Leadership  Communication  Outward/society focus  Maturity o Unique experience and contribution resilience Total number of applicants = 1587 o 148 of those are admitted o 3.6 average GPA o 154 verbal, 154 quantitative o 1000-2000 hours of veterinary experience o 1000-2000 hours of animal experience o 82% female o 20% underrepresented minority students o 25 is the average age fees o ~$110,000 instate o ~$170,000 average total debt at graduation o $70,000 average starting salary o scholarships (Chad Jones, banking major, HUGE financial resource) Banfield o Clinical skills can be taught o Communication CAN’T Healer’s art o Deal with emotional success in medicine o Taking care of yourself during the program


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