HumanAnatomyChapterSix.pdf KINE 2510-002
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Smith on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KINE 2510-002 at University of Toledo taught by Jamal I. Bittar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Anatomy at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Human Anatomy Chapter Six 1. The skeletal system is composed of a. Bones b. Cartilage c. Joints 2. Where are the major cartilaginous structures in to body? a. External ear b. Nose c. Articular cartilages d. Costal cartilages e. Larynx f. Rings in esophagus g. Discs between vertebrae h. Pubic symphysis i. Articular discs i. Meniscus 3. What is cartilage composed of? a. Connective tissue b. Contains no nerves or blood vessels 4. What is the perichondrium? a. Dense irregular connective tissue b. Resists outward expansion of cartilage c. Aides in the growth and repair process 5. What are the three different kinds of cartilage? a. Hyaline b. Elastic c. Fibrocartilage 6. How much water composes cartilage? a. 60 to 80% 7. Describe chondrocytes a. Cells that compose cartilage b. Located in the lacuna within the cartilage 8. What is the lacuna? a. Space within the extracellular matrix of cartilage 9. Describe hyaline cartilage a. Appears as frosted glass when viewed b. Most abundant c. Spherical chondrocytes d. Fibrils e. Gelatinous ground structure f. Support flexibility and resilience g. Makes up articular cartilage in joint ends and embryonic skeleton 10. Describe elastic cartilage a. Matrix contains elastic fibers and fibrils b. More elastic c. Composes external ear and epiglottis cartilage 11. Describe fibrocartilage a. Strongly resistant to compression and tension b. Intermediate between hyaline cartilage and connective tissue c. Contains thick collagen fibers surrounded by chondrocytes d. Located in anulus fibrosus between the knees 12. How does cartilage grow? a. Appositional growth b. Interstitial growth 13. Define appositional growth a. Growth from the outside b. Chondroblasts in perichondrium produce cartilage by secreting matrix 14. Define interstitial growth a. Growth from within b. Chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix 15. What is calcified cartilage? a. Crystals of calcium phosphate precipitate in the matrix b. Sign of aging 16. Are bones considered organs? a. Yes, the contain multiple kinds of tissue 17. What are the functions of bones? a. Support b. Movement c. Protection d. Mineral storage e. Blood cell formation and energy storage f. Energy metabolism 18. Bone cells contain both a. Organic and inorganic compounds 19. What are the organic compounds in bone? a. Cells, fibers, ground substance b. 35% of bone tissue mass c. Collagen d. Allows for flexibility 20. What are the inorganic compounds? a. Mineral salts b. 65% of bone tissue mass c. Calcium phosphate d. Resists compression, hardness 21. What three cells compose bone tissue? a. Osteogenic b. Osteoblasts c. Osteoclasts 22. Describe osteogenic cells a. Stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts 23. Describe osteoblasts a. Cells that actively produce and secrete organic compounds (ground substance and collagen) 24. What is osteoid? a. Bone matrix secreted by the osteoblasts b. Ground substance, collagen 25. When do osteoblasts become osteocytes a. Once inorganic calcium salts crystallize within the osteoid and become surrounded by bone matrix 26. What are osteocytes? a. Bone cells b. Function to keep bone healthy 27. What are osteoclasts? a. Multinucleated cells which break down bone with HCl and whose lysosomes reabsorb the organic compounds 28. How are bones classified? a. Long bones b. Short bones c. Flat bones d. Irregular bones 29. Describe long bones a. Longer than they are wide b. Contains a shaft and two distinct ends c. Named for elongated shape 30. Describe short bones a. Roughly cube shaped b. Wrist and ankle bones c. Sesamoid bones are a special category of bone i. Form within the tendons ii. Alter direction of pulling tendon iii. Reduce friction and modify pressure 31. Describe flat bones a. Thin, flattened and somewhat curved b. Most cranial bones, ribs and sternum 32. Describe irregular bones a. Various shapes that do not fit into any other category b. Vertebrae and hip bones 33. What are the two types of bone tissue a. Compact bone b. Spongy bone 34. Describe the structure of long bones a. Diaphysis and epiphyses b. Joint surface of epiphysis is covered with hyaline cartilage (articular cartilage) c. Epiphyseal line d. Nutrient arteries and nutrient veins run through wall in diaphysis called nutrient foramen i. Nutrient artery provides blood for bone marrow and spongy bone e. Branches extend to provide to compact bone f. Epiphyseal arteries and veins supply the epiphyses g. Center of bone consists of medullary cavity i. Marrow cavity h. Periosteum covers entire outside of the bone except for the epiphyses i. Has two layers ii. Superficial layer of dense irregular connective tissue iii. Deep layers against the compact bone 1. Contains osteoblasts, osteoclasts 2. Can’t be distinguished from fibroblasts within the layer iv. Supplied with nerves and blood v. Secured to underlying bone by perforating collagen fiber bundles vi. Provides insertion point for tendons and ligaments i. Endosteum covers the internal portion of the bone i. Trabeculae of spongy bone ii. Lines central canals of osteons iii. Osteogenic 35. Describe the structure of short, irregular and flat bones a. Periosteum covered compact bone b. Endosteum covered short bones c. No diaphysis and epiphyses d. Contain bone marrow but no medullary cavity e. In flat bones, spongy bone is called diploe 36. List the different kinds of bone markings a. Projections that are attachment sites for muscles and ligaments b. Surfaces that form joints c. Depression and openings 37. Describe the structure of compact bone a. Contains osteons i. Harversian system ii. Long cylindrical structures parallel to the long axis of the bone and to the main compression stresses iii. Mini weight bearing pillars b. Lamella i. Layer of bone matrix which collagen fibers and mineral crystals align and run in a single direction ii. Inhibit cracking c. Central canal i. Lined with endosteum 1. Osteogenic layer ii. Contains own blood vessels iii. Supply nutrients to the bone cells of the osteon d. Perforating canals i. Lie are right angles to the central canals ii. Connect blood and nerve supply of periosteum to central canals and marrow cavity 38. Describe the role of osteocytes in bone a. Spider shaped b. Occupied in lacunae c. ‘spider legs’ stem into canaliculi d. Canaliculi connect neighboring lacunae i. Form gap junctions ii. Transfer of nutrients iii. Only way to get nutrients to osteons 39. Describe interstitial lamellae a. Lamellae that lie between the osteons b. Incomplete lamellae c. Remains of old lamellae 40. Describe circumferential lamellae a. Occur in the external and internal surface layer of compact bone b. Extends entire diaphysis of compact bone c. Functions like an osteon on a larger scale 41. Describe the anatomy of spongy bone a. Trabecula contain several layers of lamellae and osteocytes b. Osteocytes receive nutrients from capillaries in endosteum i. Connected through the canaliculi 42. What are the two names for bone tissue formation a. Osteogenesis b. Ossification 43. Describe osteogenesis a. Begins in the embryo, proceeds throughout childhood and adolescence b. Before week 8, skeleton consists of only cartilage c. Bone tissue appears in week 8 and replaces cartilage and mesenchymal membranes 44. Describe intramembranous ossification a. Forms the skull bones, clavicles b. During week 8 of embryonic development c. Mesenchymal cells cluster within connective tissue membrane and become osteoblasts d. Cells secrete organic matter/osteoid e. Once surrounded matrix, the osteoblasts become osteocytes f. New bone tissues form between blood vessels and forms woven bone tissue g. Mesenchymal cells condense and become part of the periosteum h. Trabeculae at periphery grow thicker until plates of compact bone are present on both surfaces i. In center of the bone trabeculae remain distinct and spongy bone results 45. What is woven bone tissue? a. New bone tissue formed between embryonic capillaries 46. Describe endochondral ossification a. All bones base of skull and down excluding the clavicles b. Modeled in hyaline cartilage c. Begins late in second month of development not stopping until early adulthood d. Increase bone size in width and length 47. Steps of endochondral ossification a. A bone collar forms around the diaphysis i. New periosteum formed b. Cartilage calcifies in the center of diaphysis i. Chondrocytes hypertrophy and die c. The periosteal bud invades the diaphysis and the first bone trabeculae form i. Earliest form of spongy bone appears d. Diaphysis elongates and the medullary cavity forms i. Begin to form the medullary cavity e. Epiphyses ossify and cartilaginous epiphyseal plates separate diaphysis and epiphyses i. Epiphyseal plates are formed 48. What is the periosteal bud? a. Consists of a nutrient artery and vein along with cells that will form bone marrow b. Contain osteoblasts and osteoclasts 49. What is the primary ossification center? a. The bone tissue from the center of the diaphysis during bone tissue formation 50. What is the secondary ossification center? a. Areas of bone formation in the epiphyses 51. Describe the resting zone a. The cartilage cells nearest the epiphysis are relatively small and inactive 52. Describe the proliferation zone a. Cartilage cells undergo mitosis and lengthen the entire bone 53. Describe the hypertrophic zone a. Older chondrocytes enlarge and signal the surrounding matrix to calcify 54. Describe the calcification zone a. Cartilage matrix is calcified b. Chondrocytes die c. Leaves behind trabeculae of calcified cartilage 55. Describe the ossification zone a. Spicules are partly eroded by osteoclasts then covered with bone tissue by osteoblasts forming spicules of bone 56. Describe postnatal growth of endochondral bones a. Endochondral bones lengthen from epiphyseal plates b. Maintains constant thickness during growth c. After adolescence, the plates thin as chondroblasts stop dividing d. Cartilage stops growing and is replaced by bone e. Long bones stop growing when the bone of the epiphyses and diaphysis close i. Closure of epiphyseal plates 57. Define appositional growth a. The thickening of endochondral bones by addition of bone tissue to the surfaces of bone 58. All endochondral bones follow these steps a. Calcification b. Deterioration c. Invasion of periosteal bud containing osteogenic cells d. Deposition of bone tissue by osteoblasts 59. How much calcium leaves the bones each day? a. Half a gram 60. Describe the basics of bone remodeling a. Bone is deposited and removed primarily at the endosteal surface b. Remodeling occurs at the endosteum lining in the central canal of the osteons 61. How often is compact bone replaced? a. Every 10 years 62. How does bone reabsorption occur? a. Accomplished by osteoclasts b. Dig pits into the bone and cause deterioration c. Plasma membrane secretes HCl which breaks down the bone matrix d. Lysosomes absorb the organic matter e. Osteoclasts take up collagen and dead osteocytes 63. How does bone deposition occur? a. Accomplished by osteoblasts b. Lay down organic osteoid on bone surfaces c. Calcium salts crystallize within this osteoid d. Transform into osteocytes when surrounded by bone matrix 64. Where are osteoblasts derived from? a. Mesenchyme cells in the periosteum, endosteum and connective tissues near bone marrow 65. Where are osteoclasts derived from? a. Form in bone marrow b. Arise from immature blood cells i. Hematopoietic stem cells c. Multinucleate structure 66. Why are bones of the skeleton constantly remodeled? a. Bone remodeling helps maintain constant concentrations of calcium and phosphate in body fluids b. In response to the mechanical stress it experiences 67. What role does the parathyroid play in calcium release? a. Stimulates osteoclasts to reabsorb bone to release calcium when fluid levels are low 68. What is a simple fracture? a. A fracture in which a bone breaks cleanly and does not penetrate the skin 69. What is a compound fracture? a. Fracture when the bone breaks and protrudes through the skin 70. What is the process of reduction? a. Realignment of the broken bone ends 71. What is closed vs. open reduction? a. In closed reduction the bones are coaxed back into place by the physician’s hands b. In open reduction the bone ends are joined surgically by pins or wires 72. What are the phases of fracture healing? a. Hematoma formation b. Fibrocartilaginous callus formation c. Bony callus formation d. Bone remodeling 73. Describe osteoporosis a. Low bone mass and deterioration of the microscopic architecture of the bony skeleton b. Bone absorption outpaces bone deposition c. Compact bone becomes more thin and spongy bone loses trabeculae d. Mostly found in older people, usually women e. Estrogen deficiency is implied 74. Describe osteomalacia and rickets a. Bone is inadequately mineralized b. Calcification does not occur and bones soften c. Due to inadequate amounts of vitamin D or calcium phosphate in diet 75. Describe osteosarcoma a. Form of bone cancer b. Usually affects people ages 10 – 25 c. Originates in long bone of the upper or lower limb d. 50% of cases begin in the knee e. Secretes osteoid too quickly and creates tumor that metastases in the medullary cavity
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