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SOC 1003, Week 3-4

by: KBeard2

SOC 1003, Week 3-4 SOC 1003

Arkansas Tech University
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Methods, Culture
Introductory Sociology
J Stobaugh
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by KBeard2 on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1003 at Arkansas Tech University taught by J Stobaugh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Arkansas Tech University.

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Date Created: 02/06/16
SOC 1003: Intro to Sociology  Dr. James Stobaugh Week 3­4 (1/26 ­ 2/5) Notes Methods  Surveys  Observation  o Example study: how people claim space  Experiments  o Example studies  Subway – who is helped more: the drunk or the ill  Job applications – who is hired more: black, white, or criminal  Ethical Issues  Major Cases o Tuskegee Experiment 1932 – syphilis effects  Black sharecroppers infected with syphilis offered free medical care from  specific doctors.   1947 Penicillin developed, sharecroppers not treated   1972 Experiment publicized and shut down o Milgram Experiment 1974 – obedience to authority (“just following orders”)  Americans directed by authority figures to administer increasingly dangerous  shocks to and eventually killing other participants  60% of participants were willing to administer lethal shocks o Humphreys Experiment 1960s­70s – homosexuality  Humphreys posed as a watchqueen (lookout for police) for homosexual men  who met for sex, tracked license plates, and interviewed the men years later  Male homosexual acts were illegal. Data eventually destroyed to protect the  subjects  Guidelines o Voluntary participation o Harm must be minimized o Confidentiality (identity kept hidden) or anonymity (identity never recorded/known) o Deception must be minimized (dependent on study) Culture Culture­ ways of life (values, customs, language, etc.) passed through generations  Society’s personality  Toolkit for navigating the world, necessary for survival Components  Symbols – representatives, dual meanings  Language – symbols that enable thought and communication (verbal and nonverbal)  Values – collective ideas, morality, desired and undesired behavior  o How we evaluate behaviors, ideas, etc.  Norms – rules of behavior and conduct o Folkways – unenforced (which side of the sidewalk to walk on) o Mores – core values, some formal, difficult but possible to change o Taboos – violation is met with revulsion o Subculture – group within dominant culture with unique language, dress, etc.  A minor culture that coexists with the dominant culture  Based on occupation, interest, religion, politics, etc.   e.g. geek culture, sports o Counterculture – minor culture that conflicts with dominant culture  e.g. gangs, white supremacists, hippies Stepping Outside  Ethnocentrism – evaluating another culture based one’s own o Culture shock – disorientation that occurs when culture (method for navigating  the world) doesn’t work o One view, tunnel vision  Culture Relativism – evaluating another culture based on that culture o Better understanding of causation and meaning of aspects of the culture o Often challenges morality/standards High Culture vs Pop Culture  High – requires knowledge and/or money o e.g. polo, opera, art  Pop – requires little to no knowledge or money o e.g. sports, pop music, craft beers Human Development  Socialization – life­long process of learning to function or find “place” in society o Essential link between individual and society  Self­concept (“self­esteem”) o Physical, active, social, and psychological sense of self  Cooley and the Looking­Glass Self o Perception of others’ evaluation of one’s self o “How we think others think about us”   Meade and Role­Taking concept o Process of mentally taking place of others to understand their point of view  Role­taking (becoming that person) practice  Role­making (create what we think that person expects)  Playing the role (acting out what we think that person expects) o Significant others – people with influence over behavior


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