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Botany Week 2

by: Parker Thurston

Botany Week 2 BOT 1114

Parker Thurston
General Botany
Michael Kistenmacher

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About this Document

Week 2 of notes leading up to the first test
General Botany
Michael Kistenmacher
Class Notes
botany, kistemacher
25 ?




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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Parker Thurston on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BOT 1114 at University of Oklahoma taught by Michael Kistenmacher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Botany in Biology at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
P PP NT Week 3 Monday refer to chromosomes as n or 2n where n is the number of copies of unique chromosomes chromosomes considered a single unit when 2 chromatids are attached Dermal Tissue epidermis retains water protection against herbivores slightly waxy controls gas exchange can possibly absorb water and minerals in leaves at stomata a specialized structures found in leaves b composed of guard cells and a pore between them c allow 002 to enter leaf food d transpiration the loss of water at plants leaves e usually located on bottom of leaf stomata must open so plant can eat however they lose water when they eat EACH ROOT HAIR IS A SINGLE CELL Ground Tissue Mesophyll parenchyma cells Palisade a most photosynthesis occurs here b no spaces between cells to maximize sunlight Spongy a has airspaces between cells Tuesday Mitosis produces 2 identical offspring cells Organic Molecules 3 P93 Carbohydrates contains carbon hydrogen and oxygen made of sugar monosaccharidegt disaccharidegt sucrose a di formed by glucose and fructose e polysaccharide lipids fats proteins nucleic acids small molecules called monomers combined to make polymers form macromolecules too large to leave cell 9069 dehydration takes water off of ends of molecules to join them hydrolysis used to break polymers a water split apart to join the end of monomer or polymer Making Macromolecules enzymes lower energy required high fructose corn syrup is 55 fructose and 45 glucose same components as sucrose is bad because extremely prevalent Cellulose made of glucose cannot be broken down by humans VVednesday STARCH TASTES TERRIBLE banana sugars break down over time fats or oils have most energy per gram converts different types of energy into fats carbs and proteins can use iodine to show if sugar is being produced by testing for starch put leaf into boiling water to take out nongreen then put into alcohol to take out green pigments then you will have clear leaf if the leaf turns brown when in iodine there is starch present leaf makes starch in dark doesn t have to produce sugar because is sitting in sugar what is necessary for starch production sugar what is necessary for sugar production light photosynthesis broken into 2 stages light independent thtdependent Thursday bubble found in test tube with light shown on it shows that photosynthesis occurred due to oxygen bubble things necessary for photosynthesis light 002 Water things produced by photosynthesis oxygen sugars water Equation for photosynthesis 6COZ6H20gt C6H1206602 law of conservation of energy energy cannot be created or destroyed only transferred photosynthesis transfers light energy to chemical energy no conversion can be 100 efficient some loss of energy occurs in photosynthesis virtually all life on earth depends on photosynthesis PPNT produces energy produces oxygen which is necessary for cellular respiration light consists of energy packets call photons purple light is high energy red is low energy high energy has short wavelength low energy has long wavelength pigments complex organic molecules that absorb light Chlorophyll absorbs light between 400500nm and 600700nm absorbs all colors of light other than green which is why plants are green synthesis of chlorophyll and other pigments other pigments is stimulated by light Chlorophyll a is primary absorber of light chlorophyll a and b complement each other to be able to absorb more light accessory pigments absorb light that chlorophyll cannot light energy strikes pigment excites electron to higher ground state within the atom then dissipates energy heat can be lost fluorescence resonance moving from one element to another reductionoxidation a reduction means to gain an electron b oxidation is to lose an electron each photosystem has antennae complex array of pigments reaction center a special pair of chlorophyll a that donates electrons once electron leaves chlorophyll a is passed on between proteins inside second membrane electrons move through the electron transport chain to generate ATP and NADPH Proton gradient used to generate ATP NADP molecule is given electron at the end of the chain to generate NADPH


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