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FDSCI 210, Week 3 Macroevolution

by: Makayla Austin

FDSCI 210, Week 3 Macroevolution FDSCI 210-01

Marketplace > Brigham Young University - Idaho > Science > FDSCI 210-01 > FDSCI 210 Week 3 Macroevolution
Makayla Austin
GPA 3.793

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About this Document

These notes cover the basic premises of how evolution can occur in a species.
Neanderthals/Other Successes
John S. Griffith
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makayla Austin on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FDSCI 210-01 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by John S. Griffith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Neanderthals/Other Successes in Science at Brigham Young University - Idaho.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
FDSCI 210; Macroevolution ­ Darwin’s Tree of Life  o Each new branch or species arises from the modification of an ancestral  species o The process by which a new species arises is called speciation ­ Evolution creates and destroys species ­ What is a species? o A group of individuals that under normal circumstances are capable of  interbreeding to produce fertile offspring o Each species has its own evolutionary pathway ­ How do new species arise? o Speciation, 3 stage process  a population becomes reproductively isolated from the rest of the  species  genetic divergence leads to the development of unique traits for  each group  novel traits arise between the two groups that ensure reproductive  isolation during future contacts (isolating mechanisms) ­ How do populations become reproductively isolated from other members of its  species? o Dispersal and Colonization (rafting to an island) o Vicariance events  Events that physically divide a population into two or more isolated  ranges like rising of a mountain range, long term drying trend, or  lava flow ­ Mechanisms for Genetic Divergence o Isolating mechanisms, two types  Prezygotic: isolating mechanisms that occur before fertilization  Ecological isolation (different habitats within an overlapping  range  Temporal isolation (even if they come in contact, they can’t  mate if they breed at different times  Behavioral isolation (even if they breed at the same time,  they will not mate if they are not attracted to one another o Courtship rituals are critical for mating within a  species  Mechanical isolation (potential mates attempt engagement  but sperm cannot be successfully transferred; may be due to differences in reproductive organs  Gametic isolation (sperm is transferred but sperm and egg  are incompatible  Postzygotic: isolating mechanisms that occur after fertilization  Zygotic mortality (egg is fertilized but zygote does not  develop properly because parents are genetically  incompatible; dies before birth  Hybrid Inviability (hybrid very weak and can’t live outside the  uterus  Hybrid Offspring (hybrid is sterile) o Branching and unbranched evolution  Cladogenesis: branched evolution; occurs as populations split and become reproductively isolated from each other  Anagenisis: unbranched evolution; occurs as changes in allele  frequency and morphology accumulate over long periods of time;  new species don’t live within the same time period o Mutations o Selection o Genetic drift ­ Transitional Forms o Species which are intermediate in body form between two groups of  organisms o Species that are intermediate in time in fossil record


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