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World History II: Age of Ideology

by: Morgan Holt

World History II: Age of Ideology HIST 1020 -012

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020 -012 > World History II Age of Ideology
Morgan Holt
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Covers the origins of Liberalism, Socialism. Also includes a guest lecture on Industrialization, particularly centering around technology.
World History II
Donna Bohanan
Class Notes
world, history, II, age, ideology, liberal, Liberalism, socialist, socialism, industrialization, industrial, revolution
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Holt on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
Age of Ideology II: Liberalism I. Classical economics: Emerged in 18  century with Adam Smith as the spokesperson, with  French counterparts known as Physiocrats. Known as “Classical Liberalism”, and was  associated with the middle class. A. Individualism: believed the individual should be totally free to do whatever they wanted  with their property, without government interference (as long as they didn’t infringe on  the rights/property of other people) B. Laissez­faire: “hands­off”, classical liberal approach to the economy; wanted government to stay out of the economy. C. Natural law: the idea that the entire universe is governed by the “natural laws”, and so it  runs itself. People extended this to the economy, believing that it was a machine that  could run itself. Economy is like a clock that adjusts itself. D. Freedom of contract: People should be free to negotiate contracts with  employers/workers as they pleased (including determining hours etc.); it meant no union  or government involvement, a direct contract between the worker and the employer E. Free competition: Unlimited competition was a good thing for the economy. Kept prices  down and quality high. The company that produced the cheapest product with the best  quality got the lion’s share of the money, and drove less superior companies out of  business. Encourages specialization; similar to natural selection (only the best survive);  companies focused on that which they produced. II. Classical Liberal Theorists A. Thomas Malthus: Essay on Population, late 18  century/early 19  century; looked at  population trends in Europe and tried to explain the ebb and flow. Addressed the poverty  problem and its effect on population; said poor relief was worse for the workers and only  prolonged their misery. Argued that poor relief alleviated some of their misery, but it  only encouraged them to marry early, have babies earlier, the population to rise, which  led to more poverty, etc. Becomes a political idea used to argue against it. B. David Ricardo: economist, heavily influenced by Malthus and Adam Smith; “Iron Law of Wages”; said that if you don’t meddle in the economy (minimum wage laws etc.), wages  will automatically adjust to a level that allows the worker to subsist and perpetuate  (survive and reproduce) at a natural rate. Minimum wage laws (or other outside  involvement) leads to the consequences discussed above concerning poor relief, with the  added idea that more workers would lead to more unemployment. C. Jeremy Bentham: said there WERE times when the government SHOULD intervene,  unlike his fellow liberals of the time. His brand of liberalism was known as  Utilitarianism. Believed that if government doesn’t occasionally step in, it would be a  disaster. Still believed in the ideas of his contemporaries, but thought that it was too  idealistic to believe that it would always work. An example of a time government needs  to intervene is in a monopoly because monopolies could do whatever they wanted  because they controlled their market. a. Government should focus on “greatest happiness for greatest number of people”. If  the policy does not pass that test, then it shouldn’t be passed. D. J.S. Mill: regarded as great spokesperson; On Liberty; talks about freedom of the  individual. Points out that often, in democracy, the individual still suffers; up to 49% of  the population had to follow the majority, even if it caused them to suffer. Government  should confine itself to law&order ath defensth III. Evolution of Liberalism in the late 19  and 20  centuries A. Wanted government to prevent monopolies and other government policies previously  opposed like labor unions. Shifted to need of government regulation of economy. Many  liberals looked more fondly on socialism. Age of Ideology III: Socialism Socialism sought to correct the horrible conditions that the working class lived in. Popular with  both the working class and many intellectuals. There are two kinds of socialism: Utopian and  Marxist (or scientific) I. Utopian Socialism: proposed a perfect world; did not think reforms were sufficient and  wanted instead to completely reorder society. Popular among French intellectuals. A. Saint Simon: thought industrial society would work better if government owned  infrastructure; the top tier of society would be made up of the intellectuals, who would  look after the workers. Below them would be those that ran the factories. The lowest tier  would be the workers. The purpose of the higher tiers was to look after the welfare of the  workers. B. Charles Fourier: A series of autonomous, separate communities he called Phalanx. Each  phalanx was its own separate community with no government joining them. Economy  was owned by everyone. The needs of the people were seen to, and everyone worked.  Everything was provided, including housing, food, etc. Surplus would be exchanged with other phalanxes so that they could still produce what they make best, as in the factories of Liberalism.  a. Would be run by the principle “From each according to his ability, to each according  to his need”. Meant everyone would be taken care of, even if they were unable to  work or could work very little. C. Robert Owen: Factory owner in Scotland (produced textiles). Influenced by the idea of  the phalanx, he transformed his factory town into one. Inspired other communities in  Europe and America, though most failed. II. Marxism: Dialectical Materialism (Scientific Socialism) A. Early life of Karl Marx: German; born to a middle­class Jewish family. Very well  educated; wanted to be a history professor, but as a Jew knew that he would not be able  to. Went to work for a newspaper instead, where he started to develop his ideas. Run out  of Germany because of this and took refuge in France. a. Meets Friedrich Engels, the son of an industrialist. Engels and Marx would  collaborate on ideas; Engels gave Marx a better understanding of the working of the  industrial world. Eventually the French ran them both off, so they flee to Brussels in  1847 i. There, they meet up with radicals that want them to publish their ideas. This  becomes the Communist Manifesto, published in early 1848, just before  revolutions sweep across Europe. It was written as a call to the working classes to  rise up, and was very inspirational. Because of it, they have to leave Brussels and  flee to London, where Marx writes Das Kapital. It was far less inspirational than  the Communist Manifesto, but it was also much longer and more detailed.  B. Theory of History: German philosopher Hegel wrote his philosophy of history; his theory of history was known as Dialectic. Believed that if you take any given point in time, any  given civilization will be shaped by the dominant culture of the time. This culture is  called the thesis. As the dominant culture evolves, it splits and produces the antithesis, an  anti­culture that is generally a polar opposite. When the theses and the antithesis class, it  produces the synthesis, a sort of middle ground between the two. The synthesis will then  go on to become the thesis of another time period, and they cycle repeats. Dialectic is  about moving forward by clashes. When Marx reads this, he completely embraced it. C. Substructure and Superstructure: Marx says that if you look at any culture at any given  time, the substructure is the most important part. It is the means of production and is the  basis of everything else, or the superstructure, the nature of which is determined by the  substructure. When Dialectic occurs, it happens in the substructure, over the nature of the economy. Thought eventually the working class would inevitably take over power. D. Capitalism as theft: Marx thought capitalism was a thesis that would soon produce an  antithesis because capitalism was theft. Believed in the Labor Theory of Value (written  by Ricardo, a Liberal thinker of the time), which stated that what makes the value of a  product is the work that goes into it, yet the laborer was paid a very low wage while the  capitalist makes a huge profit. He thought that the average worker was not properly  compensated for the work they put into the product, and because of this, they would  eventually rise up and take what was theirs. E. Revolution by proletariat: capitalistic society will eventually produce a clash between the  middle class and the working class, where the working class would come out on top. This would lead to a temporary dictatorship of the working class while reforms are put in  place so that there are no classes and everyone shares everything. Inspired Lenin and  many Bolshevik revolutionaries, along with Chinese and Cuban revolutionaries  throughout the following century and a half, all the way to modern times. Industrialization III: Technology and Progress I. World­Shaping Technology A. Annihilators of time and space: the speed of travel increases dramatically, cutting travel  time in half and in half again as the 19  century progresses. This changed the way people  thought of time and space and opened new worlds to them. In addition, new  communication techniques, starting with the telegraph and later the telephone, allowed  people to conduct business at a distance and stay in touch with loved ones from afar.  B. A world of comfort and convenience: new appliances had people (particularly those in  the middle class) dreaming of a future of comfort and entertainment, a world without the  struggles of their time. People fund electricity profound and almost terrifying, but  exciting all the same. II. On World’s Fairs th A. Held throughout the 19  century. They were grand events held throughout the world that  would last for months at a time, with millions of visitors. They showcased technological  advances and stimulated economic activity.  B. London (1851): Britain was the origin of the industrial revolution, so it’s no surprise that  the World’s Fair began here as well. The very first World’s Fair was practically just  Britain showing off. They built the Crystal Palace, a hug building that was made out of  industrial goods not seen in such mass quantities anywhere in the world at the time. They  filled it with all the treasures of the prospering country, along with the machines that  helped them become so huge. C. The U.S. had their own World’s Fair in Philadelphia in 1876, where they showed off a  huge steam engine. American fairs were their attempt to show the world that they had  arrived as a true world power. Unlike in Britain, where they painted a hopeful vision for  the future where everyone prospered, American fairs often showed off non­whites as  displays of people/cultures that could not exist in the new modern world. Progress was  exclusive, viewing only the middle class as worthy. Frequency of the World’s Fairs  begins to increase. D. Chicago (1893): Known as the Columbian Exposition, this World’s Fair celebrated 400  years since Columbus arrived in the Americas. They built 200 buildings and filled the  city with electric light, which was the result of an innovation war between Thomas  Edison and Nikola Tesla. Though Edison is known as the inventor of the lightbulb, and as such many people view him as the creator of modern electricity, this is not entirely true.  Edison thought that every house/building would have to have a private generator to  power it, that electricity would be severely limited. Tesla, however, had the idea to  generate massive amounts of electricity in one place and use wires to transport it to far­ off places. Obviously, Tesla won.


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