World History II: Age of Ideology
World History II: Age of Ideology HIST 1020 -012
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Holt on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Age of Ideology II: Liberalism I. Classical economics: Emerged in 18 century with Adam Smith as the spokesperson, with French counterparts known as Physiocrats. Known as “Classical Liberalism”, and was associated with the middle class. A. Individualism: believed the individual should be totally free to do whatever they wanted with their property, without government interference (as long as they didn’t infringe on the rights/property of other people) B. Laissezfaire: “handsoff”, classical liberal approach to the economy; wanted government to stay out of the economy. C. Natural law: the idea that the entire universe is governed by the “natural laws”, and so it runs itself. People extended this to the economy, believing that it was a machine that could run itself. Economy is like a clock that adjusts itself. D. Freedom of contract: People should be free to negotiate contracts with employers/workers as they pleased (including determining hours etc.); it meant no union or government involvement, a direct contract between the worker and the employer E. Free competition: Unlimited competition was a good thing for the economy. Kept prices down and quality high. The company that produced the cheapest product with the best quality got the lion’s share of the money, and drove less superior companies out of business. Encourages specialization; similar to natural selection (only the best survive); companies focused on that which they produced. II. Classical Liberal Theorists A. Thomas Malthus: Essay on Population, late 18 century/early 19 century; looked at population trends in Europe and tried to explain the ebb and flow. Addressed the poverty problem and its effect on population; said poor relief was worse for the workers and only prolonged their misery. Argued that poor relief alleviated some of their misery, but it only encouraged them to marry early, have babies earlier, the population to rise, which led to more poverty, etc. Becomes a political idea used to argue against it. B. David Ricardo: economist, heavily influenced by Malthus and Adam Smith; “Iron Law of Wages”; said that if you don’t meddle in the economy (minimum wage laws etc.), wages will automatically adjust to a level that allows the worker to subsist and perpetuate (survive and reproduce) at a natural rate. Minimum wage laws (or other outside involvement) leads to the consequences discussed above concerning poor relief, with the added idea that more workers would lead to more unemployment. C. Jeremy Bentham: said there WERE times when the government SHOULD intervene, unlike his fellow liberals of the time. His brand of liberalism was known as Utilitarianism. Believed that if government doesn’t occasionally step in, it would be a disaster. Still believed in the ideas of his contemporaries, but thought that it was too idealistic to believe that it would always work. An example of a time government needs to intervene is in a monopoly because monopolies could do whatever they wanted because they controlled their market. a. Government should focus on “greatest happiness for greatest number of people”. If the policy does not pass that test, then it shouldn’t be passed. D. J.S. Mill: regarded as great spokesperson; On Liberty; talks about freedom of the individual. Points out that often, in democracy, the individual still suffers; up to 49% of the population had to follow the majority, even if it caused them to suffer. Government should confine itself to law&order ath defensth III. Evolution of Liberalism in the late 19 and 20 centuries A. Wanted government to prevent monopolies and other government policies previously opposed like labor unions. Shifted to need of government regulation of economy. Many liberals looked more fondly on socialism. Age of Ideology III: Socialism Socialism sought to correct the horrible conditions that the working class lived in. Popular with both the working class and many intellectuals. There are two kinds of socialism: Utopian and Marxist (or scientific) I. Utopian Socialism: proposed a perfect world; did not think reforms were sufficient and wanted instead to completely reorder society. Popular among French intellectuals. A. Saint Simon: thought industrial society would work better if government owned infrastructure; the top tier of society would be made up of the intellectuals, who would look after the workers. Below them would be those that ran the factories. The lowest tier would be the workers. The purpose of the higher tiers was to look after the welfare of the workers. B. Charles Fourier: A series of autonomous, separate communities he called Phalanx. Each phalanx was its own separate community with no government joining them. Economy was owned by everyone. The needs of the people were seen to, and everyone worked. Everything was provided, including housing, food, etc. Surplus would be exchanged with other phalanxes so that they could still produce what they make best, as in the factories of Liberalism. a. Would be run by the principle “From each according to his ability, to each according to his need”. Meant everyone would be taken care of, even if they were unable to work or could work very little. C. Robert Owen: Factory owner in Scotland (produced textiles). Influenced by the idea of the phalanx, he transformed his factory town into one. Inspired other communities in Europe and America, though most failed. II. Marxism: Dialectical Materialism (Scientific Socialism) A. Early life of Karl Marx: German; born to a middleclass Jewish family. Very well educated; wanted to be a history professor, but as a Jew knew that he would not be able to. Went to work for a newspaper instead, where he started to develop his ideas. Run out of Germany because of this and took refuge in France. a. Meets Friedrich Engels, the son of an industrialist. Engels and Marx would collaborate on ideas; Engels gave Marx a better understanding of the working of the industrial world. Eventually the French ran them both off, so they flee to Brussels in 1847 i. There, they meet up with radicals that want them to publish their ideas. This becomes the Communist Manifesto, published in early 1848, just before revolutions sweep across Europe. It was written as a call to the working classes to rise up, and was very inspirational. Because of it, they have to leave Brussels and flee to London, where Marx writes Das Kapital. It was far less inspirational than the Communist Manifesto, but it was also much longer and more detailed. B. Theory of History: German philosopher Hegel wrote his philosophy of history; his theory of history was known as Dialectic. Believed that if you take any given point in time, any given civilization will be shaped by the dominant culture of the time. This culture is called the thesis. As the dominant culture evolves, it splits and produces the antithesis, an anticulture that is generally a polar opposite. When the theses and the antithesis class, it produces the synthesis, a sort of middle ground between the two. The synthesis will then go on to become the thesis of another time period, and they cycle repeats. Dialectic is about moving forward by clashes. When Marx reads this, he completely embraced it. C. Substructure and Superstructure: Marx says that if you look at any culture at any given time, the substructure is the most important part. It is the means of production and is the basis of everything else, or the superstructure, the nature of which is determined by the substructure. When Dialectic occurs, it happens in the substructure, over the nature of the economy. Thought eventually the working class would inevitably take over power. D. Capitalism as theft: Marx thought capitalism was a thesis that would soon produce an antithesis because capitalism was theft. Believed in the Labor Theory of Value (written by Ricardo, a Liberal thinker of the time), which stated that what makes the value of a product is the work that goes into it, yet the laborer was paid a very low wage while the capitalist makes a huge profit. He thought that the average worker was not properly compensated for the work they put into the product, and because of this, they would eventually rise up and take what was theirs. E. Revolution by proletariat: capitalistic society will eventually produce a clash between the middle class and the working class, where the working class would come out on top. This would lead to a temporary dictatorship of the working class while reforms are put in place so that there are no classes and everyone shares everything. Inspired Lenin and many Bolshevik revolutionaries, along with Chinese and Cuban revolutionaries throughout the following century and a half, all the way to modern times. Industrialization III: Technology and Progress I. WorldShaping Technology A. Annihilators of time and space: the speed of travel increases dramatically, cutting travel time in half and in half again as the 19 century progresses. This changed the way people thought of time and space and opened new worlds to them. In addition, new communication techniques, starting with the telegraph and later the telephone, allowed people to conduct business at a distance and stay in touch with loved ones from afar. B. A world of comfort and convenience: new appliances had people (particularly those in the middle class) dreaming of a future of comfort and entertainment, a world without the struggles of their time. People fund electricity profound and almost terrifying, but exciting all the same. II. On World’s Fairs th A. Held throughout the 19 century. They were grand events held throughout the world that would last for months at a time, with millions of visitors. They showcased technological advances and stimulated economic activity. B. London (1851): Britain was the origin of the industrial revolution, so it’s no surprise that the World’s Fair began here as well. The very first World’s Fair was practically just Britain showing off. They built the Crystal Palace, a hug building that was made out of industrial goods not seen in such mass quantities anywhere in the world at the time. They filled it with all the treasures of the prospering country, along with the machines that helped them become so huge. C. The U.S. had their own World’s Fair in Philadelphia in 1876, where they showed off a huge steam engine. American fairs were their attempt to show the world that they had arrived as a true world power. Unlike in Britain, where they painted a hopeful vision for the future where everyone prospered, American fairs often showed off nonwhites as displays of people/cultures that could not exist in the new modern world. Progress was exclusive, viewing only the middle class as worthy. Frequency of the World’s Fairs begins to increase. D. Chicago (1893): Known as the Columbian Exposition, this World’s Fair celebrated 400 years since Columbus arrived in the Americas. They built 200 buildings and filled the city with electric light, which was the result of an innovation war between Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla. Though Edison is known as the inventor of the lightbulb, and as such many people view him as the creator of modern electricity, this is not entirely true. Edison thought that every house/building would have to have a private generator to power it, that electricity would be severely limited. Tesla, however, had the idea to generate massive amounts of electricity in one place and use wires to transport it to far off places. Obviously, Tesla won.
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