Enviromental Geology 2-2-16,2-4-16
Enviromental Geology 2-2-16,2-4-16 103
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddy Yates on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 103 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Edmund Perfect in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Earth's Environments in Geology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
2/2/16-2/4/16 Geology 103 Physical Environment/Cycles & development Physical Environment Origin of the Universe. “Big Bang” theory The universe has expanded from one central, hot and dense, initial point around 13.7 billion years ago Continues to expand More than 1.5 billion galaxies have been documented Age was estimated by reversing the expansions down to its initial point New stars are created from dust clouds Early Solar System. Our system’s age is determined to be around 4.5/5 billion years old Formed by a hot dense cloud of dust condensing Early Earth. 4.5 billion years old In the beginning Earth was barren like the moon and lacked an ocean and atmosphere Over time Earth heated by various means: Meteorite impact Compression Radioactive decay This heating and melting caused differentiation of lighter and heavier materials Earth differentiated in three main zones: Crust Mantle Core Rocks and Minerals. The lithosphere is made up of rocks or materials derived from rocks Rocks are composed of minerals Minerals are inorganic solids that have a regular internal structure and composition Rocks may contain one or more minerals Examples of minerals are: quartz, iron, sulfur, diamonds (carbon) Atomic Structure. Minerals are composed of atom elements Atoms are the smallest units of an element that retains its chemical and physical properties Number of protons in an atom determine its atomic number. This is characteristic for each element. Rock Types. Three basic rock types: Igneous Comes from Latin word “fire” 2/2/16-2/4/16 Geology 103 Physical Environment/Cycles & development Formed from lava Sedimentary Latin word for “settle/ sit” Formed from the weathering of other rocks Metamorphic Latin word meaning “transformation” Formed when other types of rocks are altered under immense heat Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Granit (I) Salt Slate Pumice (E) Sandstone Quartzite Basalt (E) Limestone Marble E= extrusive (found above ground) I= intrusive (Found below ground) = once this rock is put under immense heat, it turns into this rock Rock Cycle. Can explain different types of rock Very slow (hundreds of millions of years) Image taken from Mineralogical Society of America 2/2/16-2/4/16 Geology 103 Physical Environment/Cycles & development Biogeochemical Cycles/ Development of Atmosphere and Lithosphere Biogeochemical Cycles. This refers to the cycling of matte within and among the four spheres Scientist focus on element and compound cycles Major features in these cycles: Number of different pathways Variations in the rates of cycling Sensitivity to human activities Cycling of Key Elements. The most important cycles involve 6 elements that comprise most living things: Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Phosphorus Sulfur Cycles Vary in Weight. Different elements cycle at different rates Rate depends on: Existence of gas phase No gas phase = very slow cycle Chemical reactivity Reactivity- number and speed of reactions with another chemical Higher reactivity = faster cycling Example: Carbon Cycle (single element) Carbon is primarily drawn out of the atmosphere by plants in the biosphere (photosynthesis): CO 2 H 2+ energy = (CH 2) n O 2 Carbon returns to the atmosphere through combustion (burning fuel and respiration): (CH2O)n+ O2 = CO2+ H2O+ energy Carbon storage: Oceanic 38,000 Atmosphere 748 Lithosphere 4,000 Billion Metric Tons Biosphere 2,000 Human Impact: Fossil Fuel Carbon. Many biogeochemical cycles are being accelerated and so is the depletion of our resources and as a byproduct, pollution Carbon is an example of human impact 2/2/16-2/4/16 Geology 103 Physical Environment/Cycles & development Modern civilization is built on fossil fuels, derived by fossilized plants that contain solar energy Carbon emissions from burning has increased Plants and oceans can only absorb half of the carbon that is being put out Development of the Atmosphere. The atmosphere developed between 4 and 3.5 billion years ago Oxygen has increased since then because of plant life Present Day Atmosphere. Atmosphere is a gradient based on temperature The density of the gases in the atmosphere decreases exponentially as you go further up and away from Earth 99% of gases are found in the lower atmosphere Atmospheric Cycles. Controlled by a complex variety of forces Energy from the sun creates convection cells in lower atmosphere that wrap around the Earth: Hadley cell Ferrell cell Polar Fronts and Flows These are modified by: Presence of oceans Coriolis effect Topography Coriolis Effect: Earth’s rotation causes a curvature to appear in an otherwise straight path Remember: three different convection cells are influenced by Coriolis Effect 2/2/16-2/4/16 Geology 103 Physical Environment/Cycles & development Development of the Hydrosphere. About 4 million years ago, scientist assume Earth had an ocean Where did water come from? Incorporated by beginning mineral structures After earth’s many changes and heat differentiations, water molecules leave minerals Collisions with icy comets Hydrologic Cycle. Oceans hold 97.4% of our water Ground water holds 0.54%
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