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Enviromental Geology 2-2-16,2-4-16

by: Maddy Yates

Enviromental Geology 2-2-16,2-4-16 103

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > Geology > 103 > Enviromental Geology 2 2 16 2 4 16
Maddy Yates
GPA 2.92

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Earth's Environments
Edmund Perfect
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddy Yates on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 103 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Edmund Perfect in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Earth's Environments in Geology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
2/2/16-2/4/16 Geology 103 Physical Environment/Cycles & development Physical Environment  Origin of the Universe.  “Big Bang” theory  The universe has expanded from one central, hot and dense, initial point around 13.7 billion years ago  Continues to expand  More than 1.5 billion galaxies have been documented  Age was estimated by reversing the expansions down to its initial point  New stars are created from dust clouds  Early Solar System.  Our system’s age is determined to be around 4.5/5 billion years old  Formed by a hot dense cloud of dust condensing  Early Earth.  4.5 billion years old  In the beginning Earth was barren like the moon and lacked an ocean and atmosphere  Over time Earth heated by various means:  Meteorite impact  Compression  Radioactive decay  This heating and melting caused differentiation of lighter and heavier materials  Earth differentiated in three main zones:  Crust  Mantle  Core  Rocks and Minerals.  The lithosphere is made up of rocks or materials derived from rocks  Rocks are composed of minerals  Minerals are inorganic solids that have a regular internal structure and composition  Rocks may contain one or more minerals  Examples of minerals are: quartz, iron, sulfur, diamonds (carbon)  Atomic Structure.  Minerals are composed of atom elements  Atoms are the smallest units of an element that retains its chemical and physical properties  Number of protons in an atom determine its atomic number. This is characteristic for each element.  Rock Types.  Three basic rock types:  Igneous  Comes from Latin word “fire” 2/2/16-2/4/16 Geology 103 Physical Environment/Cycles & development  Formed from lava  Sedimentary  Latin word for “settle/ sit”  Formed from the weathering of other rocks  Metamorphic  Latin word meaning “transformation”  Formed when other types of rocks are altered under immense heat  Igneous  Sedimentary  Metamorphic  Granit (I)  Salt  Slate  Pumice (E)  Sandstone  Quartzite  Basalt (E)  Limestone  Marble  E= extrusive (found above ground)  I= intrusive (Found below ground)  = once this rock is put under immense heat, it turns into this rock  Rock Cycle.  Can explain different types of rock  Very slow (hundreds of millions of years)  Image taken from Mineralogical Society of America 2/2/16-2/4/16 Geology 103 Physical Environment/Cycles & development Biogeochemical Cycles/ Development of Atmosphere and Lithosphere  Biogeochemical Cycles.  This refers to the cycling of matte within and among the four spheres  Scientist focus on element and compound cycles  Major features in these cycles:  Number of different pathways  Variations in the rates of cycling  Sensitivity to human activities  Cycling of Key Elements.  The most important cycles involve 6 elements that comprise most living things:  Oxygen  Carbon  Hydrogen  Nitrogen  Phosphorus  Sulfur  Cycles Vary in Weight.  Different elements cycle at different rates  Rate depends on:  Existence of gas phase  No gas phase = very slow cycle  Chemical reactivity  Reactivity- number and speed of reactions with another chemical  Higher reactivity = faster cycling  Example: Carbon Cycle (single element)  Carbon is primarily drawn out of the atmosphere by plants in the biosphere (photosynthesis):  CO 2 H 2+ energy = (CH 2) n O 2  Carbon returns to the atmosphere through combustion (burning fuel and respiration):  (CH2O)n+ O2 = CO2+ H2O+ energy  Carbon storage:  Oceanic 38,000  Atmosphere 748  Lithosphere 4,000 Billion Metric Tons  Biosphere 2,000  Human Impact: Fossil Fuel Carbon.  Many biogeochemical cycles are being accelerated and so is the depletion of our resources and as a byproduct, pollution  Carbon is an example of human impact 2/2/16-2/4/16 Geology 103 Physical Environment/Cycles & development  Modern civilization is built on fossil fuels, derived by fossilized plants that contain solar energy  Carbon emissions from burning has increased  Plants and oceans can only absorb half of the carbon that is being put out  Development of the Atmosphere.  The atmosphere developed between 4 and 3.5 billion years ago  Oxygen has increased since then because of plant life  Present Day Atmosphere.  Atmosphere is a gradient based on temperature  The density of the gases in the atmosphere decreases exponentially as you go further up and away from Earth  99% of gases are found in the lower atmosphere  Atmospheric Cycles.  Controlled by a complex variety of forces  Energy from the sun creates convection cells in lower atmosphere that wrap around the Earth:  Hadley cell  Ferrell cell  Polar Fronts and Flows  These are modified by:  Presence of oceans  Coriolis effect  Topography  Coriolis Effect: Earth’s rotation causes a curvature to appear in an otherwise straight path   Remember: three different convection cells are influenced by Coriolis Effect 2/2/16-2/4/16 Geology 103 Physical Environment/Cycles & development  Development of the Hydrosphere.  About 4 million years ago, scientist assume Earth had an ocean  Where did water come from?  Incorporated by beginning mineral structures  After earth’s many changes and heat differentiations, water molecules leave minerals  Collisions with icy comets  Hydrologic Cycle.  Oceans hold 97.4% of our water  Ground water holds 0.54%


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