CRJU 3200: Crime Prevention and Security, week 4 notes
CRJU 3200: Crime Prevention and Security, week 4 notes Crju 3200
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Crju 3200 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Lab in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Crime Prevention and Security in Criminal Justice at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
CRJU 3200: Crime Prevention and Security, Spring Semester 2016 Week 4 Early Projects: Demonstration projects Secured by design: program started in England o The community decides when new buildings/complexes are built and designed with an eye towards safety o Required law enforcement involvement o Law enforcement could not tell them that they couldn’t build something, but they just wouldn’t fund it if they didn’t like it o Have to give input Attributes of sustainable communities: started in Great Britain o Access and movement o Structure o Surveillance o Ownership o Physical protection o Activity o Management and maintenance Victoria Principles for Safer Design: in Victoria o Surveillance o Access, movement, and sightlines o Activity o Ownership o Maintenance ***Recognition that we can physically make changes to change the safeness of an area*** 3 types of changes: intervening constructs Type 1 changes: direct Type 2 changes: indirect Physical design Type 3 changes: indirect crime/fear If the type 2 changes are effective, you look at type 3 changes Hardware rationale: Target hardening (locking doors, type of windows, fences) You WILL see a decline in burglary o But does not get rid of burglary o Offenders will find a way around Brings down fear of crime No impact on personal crime - Alarms: Not a lot of direct research Doesn’t make a big difference False alarms: police will stop responding or charge you for false alarms You would want a silent alarm to catch the offender Vocal alarms will just scare the offender away Becomes a deterrent before they burglarize - CCTV: Studies in England included parking lots Plain view behavior People still argue about privacy No impact on crime Meta-analysis- attempt to take results from multiple studies to get a summary result Direct comparison Social Surveillance Rationale: - Lighting: Limited impact on crime All people did was change the type of light bulb, not the amount of light Fear of crime is greatly impacted (drops significantly) Does not change level of crime - Concealment: More concealment = higher fear Fisher and Nasar: what is it about an area that would make it problematic? o Prospect, refuge, escape o Prospect- ability to see what’s coming o Refuge- is there a specific thing you can use for concealment? be able to hide, usually for potential offenders o Escape- how easy would it be to escape from an area? Pedestrian traffic- how many people come through the area? o Newman suggested to get more people outside doing activities Thought more activities would decrease crime o A lot of people or very few people on the street increases crime Middle ground More people to victimize Hide in the crowd Few people: no one would see the offender - Accessibility How do we make an area so that people who don’t belong there wouldn’t come in the neighborhood and if they did people would notice they don’t belong there? High crime street: 2 way roads at perpendicular crossing o More ways to get away Lowest crime streets: cul-de-sacs or dead end streets o No way out o People know each other Community Building Rationale: 1970: Fowler et. al. o made streets narrower, increased lighting, increased police presence o Type 1 change, fear of crime decreased o No neighborhood attitude changes No type 2 effects
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