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Medieval History 2-3

by: Emily Simone

Medieval History 2-3 3110

Marketplace > University of Toledo > History > 3110 > Medieval History 2 3
Emily Simone

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About this Document

Feb. 3rd
European Middle Ages 2
Dr. Geaman
Class Notes
medieval history
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Simone on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3110 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Geaman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see European Middle Ages 2 in History at University of Toledo.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
Cistercians Rule of St Benedict  Prayer  Manual labor  Contemplation Cluny (new kind of monastery)  Liturgy- communal prayer  Wealth Developments  Citeaux dedicated to the Virgin Mary  White tunics (undyed wool)  No child oblates – no longer allowed to send child off to be a monk  Year-long novitiate – year long trial period of being a monk  Focus on labor and personal contemplation Farming  Emphasis on manual labor  Only accept undeveloped land o If developed land, have peasants and serfs move elsewhere  Lay brothers (conversi) o Chastity, obedience, but less strict life o Often illiterate peasants o Outreach, help with labor storage Organization  Not complete autonomy but not complete centralization  Houses responsible for own finances (not belong to order), elect own abbots  General Chapter- all abbots meet each year to decide observances and such (September in Citeaux) 1112  Cistercians officially an order  Bernard, a nobleman from Burgundy, arrives at Citeaux with 30- 35 friends and relatives  Bernard and 12 other monks found Clairvaux, a daughter house, in 1115 Spread  Bernard so charismatic that the order spreads widely during his lifetime  By 1152, there were 54 Cistercians monasteries in England alone  343 throughout Europe  Throughout Europe o 500 houses by 1300 o 700+ at height in 1400s  Cheap for nobles to endow o Uninhabited land o Still get pious reward  Allow houses of nuns o Some agriculture but more manuscript work o More expensive Wane  Slackening of desire for reform  Successful agriculture with simple life leads to accumulation of wealth  Still foundations, still important  Initiative passes to friars in early 1200s Benefit the Economy  Helped make marginal land productive  Wool trade in England  Develop good estate management and techniques Spirituality  Based on intense personal emotion, especially love  Humanity of Jesus and Mary o All houses dedicated to Mary o No relics  Contemplation Marian Devotion  Rising in 1000s and 1100s  Hail Mary and rosary date from this time  Devotion spurred by: o Bernard of Clairvaux o Crusades and interaction with East o Popular sentiment Popular  Mary as intercessor o Loving o Soft stern God  Focus on the human side of Jesus, less on stern God


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