Modern US since 1974 - HIS 468 - Part 2
Modern US since 1974 - HIS 468 - Part 2 HIS 468
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenifer on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 468 at University of Kentucky taught by David E Hamilton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Modern United States since 1974 in History at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
HIS 468 Notes from week 4 More background on US international history American foreign policy from WW2 ‘70s How it goes into the unravelling of politics Polarization of politics through the Cuban Missile Crisis and Vietnam Deals with problem of secrecy Missile Crisis: ‘50s ‘70s; contentions between US and USSR Castro and Cuba’s shift to communist regime “13 days” with Kennedy Predictions of WW3 and nuclear conflict Malkinov said to be hasty, visits US Challenges about Berlin from Malkinov 1959: Castro comes to power after a Cuba under American influence Castro sides with Soviets and perceived as a threat Economic embargo; alliance cut with Cuba Plans to overthrow Castro using the Cuban public Attempt to invade by US with CIA “Bay of Pigs” invasion Invasion quelled; fiasco for American foreign policy Denials of American involvement don’t sit well with the public Castro was convinced that US would attack again: Turns to USSR for assistance Places intercontinental missiles aimed at the US after assuring the US that Cuba wouldn’t attack US surveillance found them, despite arguments that they were for defensive purposes, not convinced by Cuban explanation Kennedy addressed the nation about possible impending war: There was a debate among his advisors, the military, etc Intelligence unaware of army and warheads present in Cuba The naval blockade around Cuba was set up to prevent arrival of any more weapons or troops Negotiations with Cuba, and retreat out of Turkey Agreed not to invade Cuba The Cold War threatened the world, was a close call The point of winning with the earth’s destruction? Possession of warheads became more problematic It revealed how far behind the Soviets were compared to the rest of the world Attempts to rationalize/normalize the use, testing and possession of nuclear warheads, treaty was made about the testing of these weapons Non proliferation to prevent others from developing these weapons Cuban missile crisis changed the general perception of the world Vietnam War: Ho Chi Minh was against colonization Happened after a war against the French 1954 A division between north and south regions There was a meeting about the war in Geneva US moved to create an independent democratic South Vietnam Election of Diem, a Catholic Catholicism helped to ostracize Diem from the public, didn’t understand the common people Eisenhower's experiment in nation building VietCong Attacked southern government and northern troops Kennedy’s assassination added to US strife with the war US needed massive military support in bombing the north The “War of Containment” was suggested and implemented by Lyndon Johnson US tried to treat the conflict like they did with the Korean war, but it wasn’t similar enough to work South Vietnamese constantly had deserters The conflict was a result of the Cold War Was associated with the Domino Theory/Domino Effect Was associated with secrecy American military aimed to protect Europe; not used to guerilla warfare in Vietnam Full scale war: invaded North, involving China and possibility of nuclear weapons Army and marine corps sent out five hundred thousand troops after slow build No evidence of a victory during the war Johnson was concerned for domestic strife being exacerbated by failure; worked with Cold War strategies without public scrutiny Dragging too long added to discontent and inflation It was debated whether or not South Vietnam was in critical need of assistance Polarized public opinion hadn’t happened since the Civil war Antiwar protests, generational lines drawn, undermined trust in government Credibility gap surrounding Johnson at the time, distrust of government afterward Napalm, agent orange, murderous acts and massacres occurred in the war College campuses became more vocal about political and social issues; tragedy at Kent State University with the National Guard Tremendous toll on American people Divided opinions, nihilism Weighed heavily on and shaped turmoil of ‘70s since Truman’s doctrine Johnson wouldn’t admit failure Malkinov too erratic to properly predict Kennedy accused Eisenhower of allowing a missile gap to occur, with the USSR being made superior Eventually realized that it was the other way around Space race began, with ammunitions Age of affluence Great Compression Gains in growth Economic growth Measure of improvement of the standard of living Shift from agriculture to industrialization (and eventually to information services) Structural change Full employment and the increase of minimum wage Economic security measures added, such as social security Labor movement Began with WW2 To combat higher taxes To help recover from the Stock Market crash of the ‘30s Great Compression leads to corporate expansion and economic security for the middle class Great inflation in the ‘70s involved slow growth and no gains in real wages (buy/purchase power) Oil crisis of the ‘70s and the regional change of industry rust belt when industries left Growth in economy dependent on growth of productivity Substitution of capital for labor Application of technology and science to production processes Had an impact on economic growth Resilience Capitalist countries go through highs and lows; crises, recessions, etc Structural change is how the economy organized Sustained growth from networks in the early twentieth century Electricity (Edison) Transportation These were cumulative and reinforcing Decline of the American Stock Market in the ‘30s added to the Great Depression, and was followed by a long boom of economic growth Mixed economy helped to contain the distributional consequences of capitalism Combination of markets and the public sector It had a kind of autonomy Factory workers were laid off in the ‘30s, and it contributed to the collapse of the economy This needed stability afterward Keynes The General Theory, published in 1936 Discussed how the government could use economic/fiscal policy to sustain economics, etc Government could sustain policy through his theories Public sector must compensate for collapse Controversial, bitterly contested Provided a way forward but had its limits Had a chance for a stronger economy The Northern states were with Union for workers to join the Democratic Party after WW2 Larger international economy Tariff barriers and devaluing of the dollar to gain a domestic advantage against imported goods led to a decline Point above known as economic nationalism Open market Subjection to competitive pressure Greater risk and instability Nations had to choose between sustaining domestic economy or maintaining international trade; they chose the former Bretton Woods 1944 New Hampshire, rule for international economy Helped make possible economic growth Sustain protection for workers and farmers simultaneously General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs becomes the World Trade Organization Critical in establishing world economy International Money Fund Exchange of currency Made the exchange rate possible Critical in world trade During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries Created the gold standard with fixed values of currencies based on it This eliminated fluctuation Fixed by legislation World Bank Part of economic development Helped to integrate world economy Limited gold standard in the US to trade currency for gold US took charge of gold trade for currency Kept some stability through USD Compatibility of world economy through nations controlling their own domestically Encourages cooperation between nations Facilitated the markets after ‘45 (Marshall plan) Welfare aid for open market Uneasy truce with government business and labor Treaty of Detroit Auto workers and companies including GM, Ford and Chrysler Agreed to pay higher wages and give benefits Uneasy compromise Secretary Charles Wilson Gave quote about what was good for country boing good for GM Has been misquoted to point out corporate arrogance Under Kennedy and Johnson was the battle for full employment 1964 passed the Kennedy tax cut to stimulate economic growth Mixed economy led to balance of trade issues Japan and western European countries began competing with American exports due to their improving economic conditions Led to the devaluation of USD, US began purchasing more imported goods than exporting as a result President Nixon and the effect of his government Dollar Crisis End of Woods system; end of USD as a global system Tet of March ‘68, shatters Johnson’s contention Tet considered setback for VietCong Crisis of confidence regarding Vietnam McCarthy and Robert Kennedy Turned against the war to pull US out of Vietnam R Kennedy hated Johnson; mutual Johnson knows he’s debated, decides not to run for presidency again R Kennedy assassinated not long after MLK by an immigrant Humphrey won nominations MLK Jr assassinated, led to riots Nixon won narrowly against Humphrey in elections AntiVietnam war protesters gathered in Chicago Attempts to quell protests led to people being savagely beaten Democratic party was badly damaged by the war in Vietnam Demographic and regional changes occurred because of this Backed by the working class, white south and professionally minded middle class Culmination of dramatic change in politics ‘72 Nixon left in disgrace During tenure he visited Communist countries to ease and normalize tensions Successfully pulled soldiers out of Vietnam Social welfare system was introduced by Nixon, and economic policy developments Was reelected in ‘72, but went sour quickly Arab Israeli war cropped up more contentions with communists Arab oil embargo Watergate scandal Nixon was considered an enigma Introverted, with paranoid tendencies Made breakthroughs in politics Watergate Had contrasts during his tenure Bitter campaigns before his office, including his loss to Kennedy in ‘60 Flexibility as a politician More concerned with foreign policy than domestic issues Opportunistic Focused on political survival, tried to gain advantages in politics Winatallcosts mentality, supposedly ruthless and singleminded in dealings with government Restrained government and expanded policy Growth of governmental activity during his tenure, including courts and federal agencies not just Nixon’s actions New Center for politics Rebuilt the Republican party to include south and bluecollar workers Phillips talked with Nixon about politics’ “sunbelt” “Real majority” of voters, democratic hold was slipping Silent Majority Nonprotest supporters Average middle class Nixon tried to cultivate this group Disraeli Conservative politician of nineteenth century Britain Embraced need for change and a new center for politics Johnson waged war on poverty Programs included Job Corps and the Office of Equal Opportunity Urban riots of ‘67’68 were racially centered Nixon’s policies Food stamps now known as SNAP Social Security system Supplemental Security Income Expansion of already existing programs Helped to reduce poverty in the ‘70s There was a backlash to some of the policies later on Two programs not implemented Family assistance plan: basic assistance for those under the poverty line; would get EITC earned income tax credit; didn’t go anywhere and was contested Healthcare: Combined public and private sectors of insurance; mandated that employers had to provide for employees Race/Civil Rights Contradictory and controversial policies brought up Participation of Women in antidiscrimination programs for the workplace, etc To eliminate job discrimination To eliminate busing Affirmative action
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