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Matter of the Mind Notes Week 1

by: Athena Manzino

Matter of the Mind Notes Week 1 PSYCH 23200

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Psychlogy > PSYCH 23200 > Matter of the Mind Notes Week 1
Athena Manzino

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Notes for Week 1 in class
Matters of the Mind: The Neuron and Beyond
Brandy Bassette-Symons
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Athena Manzino on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 23200 at Ithaca College taught by Brandy Bassette-Symons in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Matters of the Mind: The Neuron and Beyond in Psychlogy at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
Matters of the Mind: The Neuron and Beyond Notes Week 1 Mind-Body Debate  Are the mind/body the same or are they separate?  Dualism o The mind and the body are separate o They act together through the penal gland o Descartes  Monism o Only one exists, either the mind or the body o Phenomenalism  Belief that only the mind exists o Materialism  Belief that only the body exists  There can’t be a mind without a body  Wallace and Darwin Two reasons to study neuropsychological case studies  Reason 1 o Curiosities o “File and forget”  Reason 2 o These syndromes illustrate fundamental principles of how the normal human mind and brain work o Structure-function relationship Neurons  At birth there are 100 billion  Parts of the neuron o Soma: cell body o Dendrites: receive info o Axon: trunk o Axon terminals: send info  Synapse: space between neurons o 1,000-10,000 per neuron  Excitatory neurotransmitters o Increase the chance the neuron will fire  Inhibitory neurotransmitters o Decrease the chance neuron will fire  Postsynaptic cell o Contains receptors with a specific lock and key  Axonhilluc o Sends action potential  A sand size piece of brain tissue has o 100,000 neurons o 2,000,000 axons o 1,000,000,000 synapses Central Nervous System Anatomy  Cervical nerves o Head, neck, and arm nerves  Thoracic nerves o Trunk nerves  Lumbar nerves o Waist down, front of legs  Sacral nerves o Waist down, back of legs  Dorsal root o Afferent (sensation) o Signal comes from the body and goes to the brain o Ex. Hand touches heat, removes hand  Ventral root o Efferent (motor) o Signal comes from the brain and goes to the body  Ischemia o Deprivation of O2 Gross Central Nervous System Anatomy  Quadriplegic o Cervical nerve damage o Signal from brain to body function is gone o Can’t use arms or legs o Ex. Christopher Reeve (superman)  Paraplegic o Lumbar nerve damage o Can move arms but not legs  Hemiplegic o Lose function of one side of your body The Brain  Hindbrain o Essential roles in transmitting motor commands to spinal chord o At the top of the spinal chord o Medulla oblongata  Contains nuclei for critical functions  Passes signals responsible for circulatory and respiratory functions  Blood pressure, heart rate, breathing o Pons  Critical functions and movement pathway  Contains major white matter tract  Message transfer station  Origin of some cranial nerves o Cerebellum  Acquiring and maintaining (external) motor skills (coordinated movements)  Midbrain o 2 main divisions  Tectum  Above the cranial nerves (much contact with cranial nerves)  Orientation of movement to sensory input o Superior (eyes) colliculi (hills) o Inferior (ears) colliculi  Tegmentum  Composed of nuclei related to motor function  Only use when you want to move limbs  Ex. Red nucleus basic body and limb movement  Diencephalon (between brain) o Important part in emotional responses o Thalamus  All sensory input gets sent to its rightful area of the brain  The relay station of the brain o Hypothalamus  Regulates metabolic functions (ex. Homeostasis)  Controls hormones (endocrine system)  Responsible for aggression, fear and sexuality  Master station  Controls motivated behaviors o Epithalamus  Pineal gland  Releases melatonin (helps you sleep/regulated by how much light you get)  Regulates circadian rhythms and SAD (seasonal affective disorder)  Subcortical Forebrain o Basil ganglia  Controls motor movements  Controls how much force is involved in movements  Involved in kinetic disorders  Parkinson’s disease o Age related o Resting tremor o Loss of mobility o Neuronal death o Stagnant gait (poor balance)  Small steps, freeze, cant turn easily  Increased chance of falls o Not enough dopamine  Deep brain stimulation surgery can help increase amount of dopamine  Slows degeneration  Keeps dopamine receptors active  Tourette’s o Childhood disease (onset before 18) o Motor and verbal ticks (irregular movements) o Genetic o Spectrum disorder  Chorea’s o Too much dopamine o Onset in 30’s and 40’s o Too much uncontrolled movement (can’t stop moving: dyskinesia)  Huntington’s disease o Autosomal dominant o Limbic system  Amygdala controls emotion  Hippocampus controls memory  Cerebrum: 2 hemispheres o Left hemisphere  Verbal processing, language, speech, reading, writing o Right hemisphere  Nonverbal processing, spatial (where things are in relation to yourself), musical, visual recognition, emotion  Ex. Right hemisphere will compensate for left hemisphere if it cant develop language  Ex. If half the brain is removed at a young age, the other half will learn to compensate (plasticity) but if it is removed at an old age, the other half might not be able to learn the functions of the removed half o Contralateral organization  Motor, soma sensory and visual field info  Left handed: right brain dominant motor  Pinched on the right arm: activation in the left brain  Left visual field: info goes to right brain o Corpus callosum  The bundle of nerves connecting the two halves of the brain  Split brain procedure  Cuts corpus callosum  Used so that epilepsy doesn’t spread from one side of the brain to the other  The two halves of the brain can’t communicate o 4 lobes of the cerebrum (each half of brain has 4 lobes)  Frontal (front of brain)  Reasoning and planning  Language, thought, working and short term memory, motor functioning  Most different from evolutionary primates o Ex. Dogs don’t have it  Make logical associations  Language: motor production, abstract thought, working memory (more complex than short term memory)  Parietal lobe (back of brain)  Touch, temperature, pain, pressure, and visual spatial processing (where things are in time)  Specialized for soma sensory input  Temporal (by ears)  Auditory and perceptual processing  Language, hearing, memory, perceiving forms (vision)  Understanding what things are (identify and recognize)  Medial: hippocampus (memory)  Occipital (above temporal lobe)  Conscious visual processing Gross Brain Anatomy  Cortex (bark) o Outer layer of the brain o Densely packed with neurons  Gray matter  All the cell bodies of the neurons are lined up along cortex  When stained it looks gray  Axon of neurons are covered in myelin sheath and look white (white matter tracts: communication pathways) o Sending signals to other parts of the brain and into midbrain  Basil ganglia o Groups of neurons o Groups of nuclei not in cortex  Meninges o Protective tissues o When infected  meningitis  Gyri  Folds in brain  “Bumps” on the brain  Evolutionary adaption to fit more brain in the skull  Sulci  Valleys in-between gyri  Fissures  Deep sulci (make an indent on the ventricular system)  Lateral separates temporal and parietal  Longitudinal  Function-structure o Modularity  Specialized and autonomous areas for mental capacities  Don’t need anything else to function o Holism  Brain functions as a whole  Everything is connected and involved in multiple behaviors o Distributed hierarchy  A theory of connectionism  Multiple systems passing info along in a hierarchal fashion  Sends info to every system add on what those systems know  then pass it on and up the hierarchy to keep adding more information  Hierarchy ex: Cortical (language, math, thinking) Limbic (sexual drives, emotions) Midbrain (arousal, motor regulation, appetite, sleep) Brainstem (vital functions, ex. heart rate)  Connectionism o Example: smiling  Passes through basal ganglia  Part of a circuit (type of connectionism)  Top-down  Frontal cortex  Thought of smiling  prefrontal cortex motor areas of cortex  fake smile  Bottom-up  Basal ganglia  Funny stimuli amygdala basal ganglia real smile o Use different parts of the brain to create a real or fake smile (different muscle contractions) o Dissociations  Right motor cortex  Programs fake smile  When it’s not working, the left side of face can’t make a fake smile but it can make a real one  Left basal ganglia  Programs real smile  When it’s not working, the right side of face can’t make a real smile, but it can make a fake one Consciousness: arousal and awareness  Arousal (wakefulness or vigilance) o Thalamus and cortex must send signals to each other and communicate with the brainstem o You can open your eyes and interact with the outside world  Medulla  Automatic functions  Transferring messages  Coordinating movement  Pons  Arousal/sleep  Relaying sensory info between cerebellum and cerebrum  Relay motor info between cerebellum and cerebrum  Reticular formation  Maintains general arousal, cardiovascular control  Pain modulation  Somatic motor control  Pain response means the person is not brain- dead  Must be activated for you to be awake  Cant move if there is damage but you can have reflexes  Awareness (environment and self) o Cerebral cortex and subcortical connections  Do you understand what’s going on around you and yourself in the environment  Levels of consciousness o Nosological criteria o Functional neuroanatomical basis  Functional neural anatomy (cerebral activity)using high levels of glucose and O2  Structural damage changes in functioning o PET scan  Dye binds to glucose/neurotransmitters/etc. to see where they go in the brain and if they’re going to the right places o Acute brain injury (just happened) Brain Death  Legal and medical definitions o Varies by state and country o Clinical death accepted for hundreds of years  Lack of heart beat and respiration (no brain stem activity)  Whole-brain death (most widely accepted today) o No spontaneous responses to any stimuli  Painful stimuli o Not everybody needs the same criteria (varies case to case) o No movement  Motor reflexes  No blinking (would indicate activation of cranial nerves)  No eye movements  Postural activity  Mouth (no swallowing, yawning, vocalizing) o Apnea > 1 hour  No spontaneous respiration for at least one hour o Flat EEG > 10 minutes  If ready electrical activity, the brain is not dead  Cortical and brainstem o You can retest all of these 24 hours later  If an organ donation is in place, the person will be taken off machines to check for brain function o Functional imaging: hollow skull phenomenon


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