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Chapter 2

by: Taylor Gaunt

Chapter 2 2020

Taylor Gaunt

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These notes consist of material that will be on exam 1
Fundamental of Speech Comm
Michael Cavanaugh
Class Notes
COMM 2020 - Introduction to Communications
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Gaunt on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2020 at East Carolina University taught by Michael Cavanaugh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.

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Date Created: 02/06/16
Chapter Two: The Practice of Public Speaking Fear/Public Speaking: A. Defining the Fear of Public Speaking - Aka communication apprehension/performance anxiety/stage fright - Combination of the following o Fear of rejection o Fear of criticism – negative feedback o Fear of judgment – judging could be good/bad o Fear of failure 1.Anxiety disorders – abnormal levels of anxiety 2.Easy to identify difference between anxiety/anxiety disorder a.Normal anxiety – sweating/elevated blood pressure b.Might avoid class c.Should be treated by professional if they have this level of anxiety B. Communication Apprehension: level of fear/anxiety associated w/ either real/anticipated communication w/ another person/persons a.Four types of CA identified by McCroskey i. Interpersonal ii. Meeting iii. Group iv. Public b.Four-Point Continuum for CA: i. Trait: For some, high levels of CA = biological part of one’s temperament ii. Generalized context: recognition that some individuals experiment high CA communicating in a particular context/situation. Have much less/no anxiety about communicating in other contexts iii. W/ given individual/group across contexts: high levels of CA when interacting w/ a specific person ex. Teacher/supervisor or group ex. Work group, therapy group, board of director meeting iv. w/ given individual/group in given context: experience high CA w/ a specific person/group but only within a specific context Ex. Apologizing to a friend/being pulled over by police C.Managing situational anxiety a.Before the Speech i. Nearly everyone experiences some level of communication apprehension 1.Barbara Streisand – no public performances for 27 years, only private clubs/charity events 2.Carly Simon – collapsed from anxiety before concert, did not perform after for 7 years after 3.Jay Mohr – tried to smuggle pill onstage for panic attack on SNL 4.Hugh Grant – panic attacks, freeze like a rabbit, sweating like a bull 5.Ricky Williams – Heisman Trophy winner/NFL star RB, had to have helmet on during interviews 6.Cicero, TJ, Mahatma Ghanid – suffered from CA ii. Prepare/practice – public speaking = skill not talent, can be learned 1.More experience = less anxiety 2.Analyze audience a.Adapt material to audience 3.Prep easy notes to follow 4.Plan an intro that will put you at ease 5.Rehearse aloud 3x+ a.Not rehearsing aloud = stoppers b.Stoppers i. Going from one section to the other ii. Vocab you struggle with/can’t pronounce 6.Rehearse in environment close to actual speech environment 7.Anticipate audiences questions/prep answers D. Warm up to prepare vocally/physically a.Read, aloud some written material b.Stretch, relax body c.Deep breathing d.Avoid too much caffeine/water E.During the Speech a.Substantive meaning of speech i. Think message not performance b.Release nervous energy through movement i. Strategically movements only c.Visual aids = jog memory/reduce worries about gestures i. Audience attention shifted away from you d.Realistic goals e.Think positively/fake it till you make it i. Audience sees a fraction of what speaker feels f. Never tell your audience you’re nervous F. Listening/Public Speaking a.People often confusing listening & hearing i. Hearing – physiological process of capturing sound by ears/brains ii. Listening – psychological process of making sense out of sounds/paying attention to external world iii. Critical/comprehensive listening requires active listening 1.Active listening – audiences has high cognitive involvement w/ the message a.Active listening: processing/storing/evaluating message G. Stages of listening (5) a.Sensing stage – Listeners select/ignore incoming stimuli i. Listeners learn to pay attention to what they find important/interesting ii. Sensing affected by age, cultural background, distractions, etc b.Interpreting stage i. Listeners supply meaning for message sensed 1.Search for meaning is difficult b/c the same word can have different meanings a.I.A. Richards’ Proper Meaning Superstition i. Mistaken belief that words have inherent meaning in/of themselves ii. Words have meaning only when placed in context b.Listeners often assume they understand i. Fail to ask questions/clarification ii. Speaker’s words may carry less impact than verbal/vocal/visual messages iii. Audiences rely more on vocal/visual cues to determine meaning than on the words themselves iv. 2/3s of the meaning in messages is carried visually/vocally v. Must coordinate verbal/vocal/visual cues so the same message is sent vi. Only message that counts is the one actually received vii. Prep for possible misunderstanding 1.I.A. Richards definition of rhetoric – study of misunderstanding and its remedies c.Evaluating stage: listeners consider message/make value judgment about speaker/message i. Listener’s attitude toward speaker can affect evals ii. Evaluations can result from – pre-existing assumptions from listener iii. Assumptions sometimes prevent listeners from forming judgements based on facts iv. Will not be persuaded if they doubt speaker’s credibility (ethos) 1.Can doubt speaker’s credibility as a way to dismiss message and reduce discomfort of message that is contrary to their belief v. Audiences might deliberately misunderstand what speaker says vi. Might listen to/recall only what agree w/ their viewpoint vii. Might alter message so it does not threaten them d.Responding stage – listeners give feedback that communicates their reaction i. Responding stage = crucial 1.Tells speakers whether they have communicated effectively ii. Listener responses can take many forms, some difficult to interpret iii. Might offer inadequate on false response to give impression they are attentive iv. Attentive listeners tend not to sit still/stare unflinchingly at speaker v. I.A. Richards notion of Feet Forward 1.Readiness or prep for one sort of outcome rather than another e.Remembering stage – final result of listening, audience decides which parts of message to retain i. most will retain only about 10-25% of specific information in presentation ii. three ways to address low percentage of info retained by an audience 1.simplicity 2.repetition 3.visual aids H. types of non-listening a.occurs when someone appears to pay attention, not paying complete attention to message i. pseudolistening: pretend to listend ii. glazing: daydreaming/not focusing on message iii. ambushing: focusing on message weakness/ignoring strengths


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