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Week 3--Lecture 6-8

by: Caitlin Acierno

Week 3--Lecture 6-8 Nutri Sci 132

Caitlin Acierno
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes are from lectures 6-8
Nutrition Today
Peter Anderson
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Acierno on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutri Sci 132 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Peter Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
Small intestine  Duodeuom  Ilium  Jejunum  Digestive tract (Gasto-intestinal tract; GI Tract; gut)  Motility o Peristalsis o Segmentation  Secretions  Auxiliary organs o Liver  Produces bile  Emulsifier o Breaks up fat droplets  Stored in the gall bladder o Pancreas  Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)  Neutralizes the strong stomach acid  Enzymes  Controls the digestive reaction  Amylase breaks down amylose  Protease breaks down protein  Lipase breaks down lipid (fat)  Disaccharidases  Produced in the intestinal mucosa o Cells that line the small intestine o Fluid Digestion  Chemical breakdown Absorption Large intestine (colon)  Water reabsorption  Some nutrient absorption  Bacterial population o Half the weight of feces is bacteria o Fiber-rich foods  Whole grains  Legumes  Vegetables  Fruits Rectum  Reservoir for elimination Carbohydrate (CHO)  CnH2n n  Photosynthesis  CO2+ H 2 + solar energy -- C6H12 +6O (2lucose)  Mostly a plant nutrient Simple CHO (sugar)  Monosaccharides  Glucose o 6 carbon, 6 sided ring (hexagon) o Fruit, sweet corn, honey, blood  Fructose o 6 carbon, 5 sided ring (pentagon) o Fruit, honey, naturally sweet stuff  Disaccharide o Double sugars o Sucrose  Glucose and fructose  Table sugar  Sugar cane  Fruit  Honey  Maple syrup o Maltose  Glucose and glucose  From starch  Digestion  Sprouting  Malting (barley) o Lactose  Glucose and galactose  Milk sugar  Milk  Only CHO in animal foods  Polysaccharides—complex CHO glucose polymers o Starch  3000-9000 glucose units  Grains  Beans  Potatoes  Amylose—straight chain  Amylopectin—branched chain o Dextrins  Intermediate breakdown products  Starch  Digestion Complex CHO—Polysaccharides—glucose polymers  Starches o Grains, beans, potatoes  Dextrins o What happens when you start digesting starches  Glycogens o Your storage form of carbohydrates o Stored in the liver and muscle  Liver maintains the blood glucose  Muscle is for the high intensity exercise o Cellulose  Grass  Same that makes up stars, but they have a different glucose linking them together?  Ruminants—Cattle, sheep, and goats can digest it. o Dietary fiber  Indigestible polysaccharide  One example is cellulose Dietary fibers  Insoluble o Wheat bran o Doesn’t dissolve o Cellulose o Lignin o Sources  Whole grains  Bran o Vitamins o Minerals o Fiber  Endosperm o Starch, protein  Germ o Vitamins o Minerals  Vegetables  Fruits with edible seeds  Soluble o Oats? o Dissolves o Pectin  Form a gel  Galactose polymer  Very similar to glucose o Gums o Mucilages o Sources  Oats  Barley  Beans (legumes)  Fruit Digestion  Starch o Amylose—amylase  Dextrins  maltose  glucose Disaccharides  By disaccharidases from mucose  Sucrose  sucrose Lactase insufficiency  lactose intolerance  Cramping, bloating, diarrhea  Europeans: v lactose intolerance  African: 50% intolerance  Asians: 90% intolerance  Dose  Culturing milk o Adding microbe that produces the enzyme for you. o Yogurt o Chasse o Buttermilk o Kefir Insoluble  Absorbs water, expands, stimulates peristalsis  Goes down over time?  Prevents and treats constipation  Works by absorbing water and swelling up.  Treatment o Fiber-rich foods o Vegetables o Fruits o Whole grains o Legumes Soluble  Lowers blood cholesterol o With bile  Made from cholesterol  Lowers the reabsorption of bile  Slows CHO absorption—good Uses of CHO  Energy—4 kcal/gram  Production of certain amino acids  Fuel now o Excess—stored as glycogen—liver muscle—and fat Blood sugar tightly regulated Mechanisms to increase blood glucose  Liver glycogen o Broken down to glucose released into the blood  Gluconeogenesis o Can make glucose o Synthesize glucose from certain amino acids o Lean mass  glucose  Reduce lean mass, reduce your metabolism o Eat regular CHO containing meals o CHO has protein sparing affect  Triggered by o Glucagon o Epinephrine  Fight or flight hormone Lower blood sugar o Insulin causes cells to increase uptake of glucose from blood o Energy o Use now or store as glycogen fat o Hypoglycemia—low blood sugar o Hyperglycemia—high blood sugar o Also known as diabetes  Type 1  Not as common in the US  Also known as “juvenile onset” o Typically in young people o Name not used any more o Failure of pancreas to produce insulin o Symptoms:  Excessive hunger  Excessive thirst  Excessive urination o Treatment  Insulin injection  Type 2  More common in the US o 90% of the people with diabetes have this type  “adult onset” o Name not used anymore o Insulin resistance  Failure of the cells in the body to respond to the insulin o Obesity o Treatments  Weight loss Glycemic effect  Glycemic index o Can monitor what they are eating and then determine how much insulin they will need. Refined sugar  Sugar cane  Sugar beets o Sugar is pretty much gone and you are left with 100% sucrose  Stripped juice 100% glucose, fructose, sucrose.


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