Week 3--Lecture 6-8
Week 3--Lecture 6-8 Nutri Sci 132
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Acierno on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutri Sci 132 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Peter Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Small intestine Duodeuom Ilium Jejunum Digestive tract (Gasto-intestinal tract; GI Tract; gut) Motility o Peristalsis o Segmentation Secretions Auxiliary organs o Liver Produces bile Emulsifier o Breaks up fat droplets Stored in the gall bladder o Pancreas Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) Neutralizes the strong stomach acid Enzymes Controls the digestive reaction Amylase breaks down amylose Protease breaks down protein Lipase breaks down lipid (fat) Disaccharidases Produced in the intestinal mucosa o Cells that line the small intestine o Fluid Digestion Chemical breakdown Absorption Large intestine (colon) Water reabsorption Some nutrient absorption Bacterial population o Half the weight of feces is bacteria o Fiber-rich foods Whole grains Legumes Vegetables Fruits Rectum Reservoir for elimination Carbohydrate (CHO) CnH2n n Photosynthesis CO2+ H 2 + solar energy -- C6H12 +6O (2lucose) Mostly a plant nutrient Simple CHO (sugar) Monosaccharides Glucose o 6 carbon, 6 sided ring (hexagon) o Fruit, sweet corn, honey, blood Fructose o 6 carbon, 5 sided ring (pentagon) o Fruit, honey, naturally sweet stuff Disaccharide o Double sugars o Sucrose Glucose and fructose Table sugar Sugar cane Fruit Honey Maple syrup o Maltose Glucose and glucose From starch Digestion Sprouting Malting (barley) o Lactose Glucose and galactose Milk sugar Milk Only CHO in animal foods Polysaccharides—complex CHO glucose polymers o Starch 3000-9000 glucose units Grains Beans Potatoes Amylose—straight chain Amylopectin—branched chain o Dextrins Intermediate breakdown products Starch Digestion Complex CHO—Polysaccharides—glucose polymers Starches o Grains, beans, potatoes Dextrins o What happens when you start digesting starches Glycogens o Your storage form of carbohydrates o Stored in the liver and muscle Liver maintains the blood glucose Muscle is for the high intensity exercise o Cellulose Grass Same that makes up stars, but they have a different glucose linking them together? Ruminants—Cattle, sheep, and goats can digest it. o Dietary fiber Indigestible polysaccharide One example is cellulose Dietary fibers Insoluble o Wheat bran o Doesn’t dissolve o Cellulose o Lignin o Sources Whole grains Bran o Vitamins o Minerals o Fiber Endosperm o Starch, protein Germ o Vitamins o Minerals Vegetables Fruits with edible seeds Soluble o Oats? o Dissolves o Pectin Form a gel Galactose polymer Very similar to glucose o Gums o Mucilages o Sources Oats Barley Beans (legumes) Fruit Digestion Starch o Amylose—amylase Dextrins maltose glucose Disaccharides By disaccharidases from mucose Sucrose sucrose Lactase insufficiency lactose intolerance Cramping, bloating, diarrhea Europeans: v lactose intolerance African: 50% intolerance Asians: 90% intolerance Dose Culturing milk o Adding microbe that produces the enzyme for you. o Yogurt o Chasse o Buttermilk o Kefir Insoluble Absorbs water, expands, stimulates peristalsis Goes down over time? Prevents and treats constipation Works by absorbing water and swelling up. Treatment o Fiber-rich foods o Vegetables o Fruits o Whole grains o Legumes Soluble Lowers blood cholesterol o With bile Made from cholesterol Lowers the reabsorption of bile Slows CHO absorption—good Uses of CHO Energy—4 kcal/gram Production of certain amino acids Fuel now o Excess—stored as glycogen—liver muscle—and fat Blood sugar tightly regulated Mechanisms to increase blood glucose Liver glycogen o Broken down to glucose released into the blood Gluconeogenesis o Can make glucose o Synthesize glucose from certain amino acids o Lean mass glucose Reduce lean mass, reduce your metabolism o Eat regular CHO containing meals o CHO has protein sparing affect Triggered by o Glucagon o Epinephrine Fight or flight hormone Lower blood sugar o Insulin causes cells to increase uptake of glucose from blood o Energy o Use now or store as glycogen fat o Hypoglycemia—low blood sugar o Hyperglycemia—high blood sugar o Also known as diabetes Type 1 Not as common in the US Also known as “juvenile onset” o Typically in young people o Name not used any more o Failure of pancreas to produce insulin o Symptoms: Excessive hunger Excessive thirst Excessive urination o Treatment Insulin injection Type 2 More common in the US o 90% of the people with diabetes have this type “adult onset” o Name not used anymore o Insulin resistance Failure of the cells in the body to respond to the insulin o Obesity o Treatments Weight loss Glycemic effect Glycemic index o Can monitor what they are eating and then determine how much insulin they will need. Refined sugar Sugar cane Sugar beets o Sugar is pretty much gone and you are left with 100% sucrose Stripped juice 100% glucose, fructose, sucrose.
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