Human Sexual Behavior Chapter 1
Human Sexual Behavior Chapter 1 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brenna Biggs on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Bruce Michael King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 112 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Human Sexual Behavior Chapter 1 Why a Course in Human Sexuality? CROSSCULTURAL COMPARISONS Normal is defined by the community in which we live. Americans known for being ethnocentric Cultures differ with regard to which parts of the body they find to be erotic. Many cultures do not find women’s breasts erotic, only needed for babies Americans find breasts so erotic that women cannot breastfeed in public What is considered to be sexually attractive can also change over time. Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes Kissing is a highly erotic and romanticized part of sexual relations in Western cultures. This practice is not shared by many cultures. Foreplay before intercourse is entirely unheard of in some cultures. Most sexually permissive: the Mangaians Mangaian boys and girls play together until the age of 3 or 4 Then they separate into age groups according to sex during the day When the boys approach adolescence, the arrival of manhood is recognized by superincision of the penis (cutting the entire length up the stomach) As the wound heals, the boy is instructed in all aspects of sex Girls receive similar instructions from older women The boy is then given to an experienced woman, who removes the superincision scab during intercourse and teaches the boy an array of sexual techniques Then the boy actively seeks out girls at night, having sex an average of 18 to 20 times a week Adolescents are encouraged to have sex with many partners and engage in all types of sexual activities Once they reach adulthood, Mangaian men and women become monogamous In all of these permissive societies, the physical pleasure of both sexes is emphasized and emotional attachments come later The most sexually repressed society: the Inis Baeg Any mention of sex is taboo, so that children are never told about things like menstruation and pregnancy, which are greatly feared Married adults do not see each other completely naked Sexual relations are not regarded as something positive by either sex Oralgenital sex is common in Western cultures, but others find it disgusting Cultural Diversity Within the United States Oralgenital relations has been a very common behavior among white middleclass Americans for the last 60 years Today, with the greater assimilation of African Americans into the middleclass, the percentage of blacks engaging in oralgenital sex is close to that for whites African Americans tend to begin sexual intercourse earlier than Caucasians Asian Americans are generally the least permissive in their sexual attitudes and behaviors Tend to have very low rates for both premarital intercourse and multiple sexual partners; have the highest rate for abortions HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES In many ways our behavior is permissive, but our attitudes about sex are often less than positive Sex is fun, sex is exciting; sex is not for you We are permissive, yet repressed Judaism They considered it a great advantage to have many children Celibacy was looked upon as neglect of one’s obligations and was regarded as sinful Daughters and wives were regarded as property Sex outside of marriage was severely condemned and punished The human body was not considered to be obscene, for God had created Adam and Eve in his own image Sex between husband and wife was cause for rejoicing A married couple could engage in any sexual activity, with only one restriction—the husband had to ejaculate within his wife’s vagina The Greeks and Romans Procreation is the main reason for sex, having children for the state, not God Greek and Roman men were allowed considerable sexual freedom outside of marriage Sex between men and boys in a teacherstudent relationship were encouraged Dualism gave rise to an ascetic philosophy, from wisdom came virtue and this could only be achieved by avoiding strong passions Christianity Christian theology separated physical love from spiritual love Saint Paul blamed Eve for the expulsion from the Garden of Eden Preached that a celibate lifestyle was the way to heaven The major influence on Christian beliefs was Saint Augustine Led a promiscuous lifestyle as a teenager and young adult Augustine, more than anyone else, solidified the Church’s antisexual attitude Believed that all sexual intercourse was for procreation Denounced sex between a husband and wife for the purpose of pleasure Victorianism Era of public prudery All pleasurable aspects of sex were denied Viewed women as asexual and as innocent as children Medical views of the 19 century generally supported the antisexuality of the era Claimed that masturbation could lead to blindness, consumption, other physical disorders, and insanity Believed that loss of semen was as detrimental to a man’s health as loss of blood Parents went to great lengths to prevent masturbation and nocturnal emissions Boys were circumcised and wore antimasturbatory devices The Sexual Revolution Before, the lack of leisure time limited opportunities for sex Shorter workweeks and access to cars provided time Americans had two things necessary to engage in leisure sex: time and mobility Women began to take an active role in sexual matters If people got STDs, they could now be cured In 1960, the birth control pill and the IUD became available The sexual revolution continued until the 1980s saw the emergence of HIV and AIDS WHAT INFLUENCES OUR ATTITUDES ABOUT SEX TODAY? Socializing agents include parents, peers, school, religion, and the media Learning about sex from parents and church leaders delays initiation of sex Learning from friends and the media increases likelihood of engaging in sex Magazines Sold openly everywhere and cannot avoid seeing the covers Young adults who read magazines have greater sexual knowledge and safesex behaviors than others Music Teens who watch music videos a lot are more sexually permissive Tend to view women as sexual objects and believe in stereotypical gender roles Movies Hollywood did not show women’s breasts until the mid1960’s, but by the 1990s films showing women in full frontal nudity were commonplace Heavy sexual content is now commonplace in today’s mainstream movies Television Only about 11% of television shows with sexually related content make any reference to sexual health or responsibility Advertisements Images of the “erotic male” help establish men and women’s ideas about masculinity and what a “real” man is Sexual Socialization: Cause and Effect? Teens who watch television shows, music videos, or movies with a lot of sexual content are more likely to have sexual intercourse earlier than other children Teens that watched the most sexual content on TV were twice as likely as others to get pregnant or get someone pregnant Sexually active teens were more likely to access sexual content in the media Frequent sexual content on television has four major effects on viewers: 1) Overestimation of prevalence of certain sexual activities in the general public 2) Disinhibition—a more liberal attitude about sex 3) Increased interest in sexual issues 4) Learning about sexual topics Children take what they see and hear in the media to learn social norms SEX AS A SCIENCE Religion used to be the primary influence in intellectual endeavors Sigmund Freud (18561939) More than anyone else he is responsible for demonstrating the influence of sexuality in human life In the Victorian era Developed psychoanalysis as a means for evaluating and treating unconscious sexual motivations Henry Havelock Ellis (18591939) Had frequent nocturnal emissions (wet dreams) Kept a diary to document his death by this dreaded “disease” Devoted a remainder of his life to sexual research In the Victorian era Argued that women were not asexual and men and women’s orgasms are similar Known for emphasis on wide range of human sexual behaviors Believed that behaviors such as masturbation and homosexuality are normal Alfred C. Kinsey (18941956) Modern era of sex research began at the publication of Alfred Kinsey’s studies His findings shocked many people and was accused of being antifamily and amoral Some researchers believe that Kinsey was the major influence in changing 20 century attitudes about sex Masters and Johnson Started to directly observe and record the physiological responses in humans People engaged in sexual activity under laboratory conditions Developed the first methods for treating sexual problems Edward O. Laumann and the National Health and Social Life Surveys The National Health and Social Life Survey was the most comprehensive nationally representative survey to date SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGY Surveys and Samples Although sample size is important, there are other factors that can negate an advantage obtained by using a large sample The sample must be taken randomly Kinsey’s two studies were quite large, but his samples were not randomly drawn Convenience samples—samples made up of whatever group is available Some people might lie when answering questions about their personal life Incorrect answers are not always the result of deceit, could be due to faulty recall The number of female sexual partners reported by men is greater than the number of male partners reported by women Volunteers had more sexual experiences, were more interested in variety, had a more positive attitude about sex, and had less sexual guilt Correlation Greater the correlation between two variables means we can predict the standing in one from the standing in another more accurately Correlation never proves causation Direct Observation People may not behave normally if they know that they are being observed The observer needs to be careful to affect as little as possible Case Studies The goal of a case study is to understand a person’s behavior and motivations Therapist’s observations and conclusions might be biased by their own beliefs Experimental Research Two groups are convenience samples, must be cautious about generalizing results SEXUALITY EDUCATION Children were believed to be carriers of original sin, prone to evil impulses Modern view of children as vulnerable and needing protection, asexual Children now had to be protected from their own sexuality Believed facts about children’s sexuality depends on the culture and the era In the US, sex education in schools started as part of a social hygiene movement to prevent rising levels of STDs The “education” was in moralistic and antisex, designed to repress sexual behavior Now included a biological component, but the basic approach was still moralistic Opinion that emerged among sex educators was a comprehensive sex education presented in a nonjudgmental, impartial manner with open discussion Toughest battle is how to prevent teenage pregnancy and STDs Many European countries introduce sexual education to school children as early as elementary school These countries have lower rates of teenage pregnancies and STDs KEY TERMS Case study Population Survey Correlation Procreation Victorian era Direct observation Random sample Volunteer bias Dualism Saint Augustine Ethnocentric Saint Paul Experimental method Sample Sigmund Freud Sex (“had sex”) Identification Sexuality Alfred C. Kinsey Sexual revolution Masters and Johnson Socialization Missionary position Socializing agent Observer bias Stratified random sample
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