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ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #2

by: Ashley

ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #2 ARCH 2243 - 001

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About this Document

Here are the next set of monuments we covered in class
History of Architecture II
Kim Sexton
Class Notes
Architecture, Renaissance, france, Italy, 15th century, 16th century, history




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 2243 - 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Kim Sexton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture II in Architecture at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
1-25-2016 Early Modern Behavioral Norms: The Renaissance Palazzo and a New Urban Elite  Main points o Private dwellings became major monuments o Situation gives rise to the invention of the “façade” which represents a new relationship between building and city I. Palazzo Medici – Florence, Italy – 15 cent – Michelozzo di Bartolomeo – Renaissance  Context – modern organizational shift resulted in a huge scale of residential architecture oChanges in economic sphere oInstead of showing power with height they show power with space they take up, how much land they can buy oPalazzo = Palace oCosimo de’ Medici oArchitect = Michelozzo di Bartolomeo (Brunelleschi lost the competition) oIt is GIANT and was the ‘palace’ of Giovanni Medici’s family (they were a banking family) oIt is equivalent to a 10 story building but is divided into just three huge floors  Plan – breaking from the medieval period while still getting inspiration from the past classical antiquity oEarly modern – renaissance palazzo though 1-25-2016 oDifferent from late gothic  it is not narrow and tall it takes up much more space, doesn’t have the open gallery on the top floor, the floor sizes get smaller as they go up oEarly modern is a peristyle courtyard and almost a perfect square that doesn’t have the circulation (staircase) in it whereas the late medieval courtyard is used for the staircase and is an irregular shape oFrom the front you can look through the front arch through the courtyard through another arch and into the back garden  Precedent = Roman Domus oIt does have a corner problem – to keep everything even the corner ends up looking much weaker, the column looks to skinny and therefor weak  Façade oIt is now something to design – the arrangement of windows to function on the interior is a vernacular idea BUT now the façade is about how it looks from the outside oFacadeISM because if you go around the corner you can clearly see the difference in the building compared to the façade making it a face or skin oMaterials and Articulation  Sophisticated use of rustification  Kind of like the binary façade but now three levels  First level – right out of the quarry  Second level – a little more sanded down and detailed  Third level – very smooth and even flat stonework oRevival of ideas from classical antiquity  The cornice which is very big and sort of hangs over the side  Some people don’t like it due to the fact there were no columns to support it oSocial Implications  First level – public, commercial, service space, foundation of society  Second level – piano nobile (noble floor – floor of living) proprietors living quarters, entertaining and business suite  Third level – servants quarters, storage oPrivacy  Cosimo’s advice – “Dress like a lord and say as little as possible”  Now a concern  Succession of privacy in the plan and sizes of rooms that you would never know existed from the façade oUrban Implications  Relates more to the exterior  Face more orientated to the street and show off more than benefit the interior  Rationalized façade – one you can take in with one glance 1-25-2016 II. Rebirth of Architectural Theory in Italy  Alberti’s Architectural Theory oStrive to apply the Vitruvian triad  Function  Structure  Aesthetics oInfluence of humanism  A building should make as much sense as the body  Ex: column  capital is the head  Ex: body is the basilica oNatures Role  Delights primarily in the circle  Nature is God III. Façade of S. Maria Novella – Florence, Italy – 15 cent. – Leon Battista Alberti – Renaissance  Beauty vs Ornament oFacadISM – the marble only covers the front of it oVery intricate looking but a flat 2D design oRenaissance façade – gothic interior (groin vaults) oFirst renaissance painting of the holy trinity that uses Brunelleschi’s one point perspective method oWhy is it beautiful?  Corbelling on some arches – gothic idea  The whole façade can be fit into a square that holds 3 full squares and two blank halves split on either side of the third oOrnamental Elements  Everything that is a color on the façade corresponds to a proportion in the building  Green, white, and red marble is often used in Florentine buildings so Alberti used the same design ideas and colors in the façade of SMN which follows the design of a Romanesque church  BRUNELLESCHI / ALBERTI CONSIDER COLUMNS ORNAMENT 1-27-2016 Leon Battista Alberti: Authoring Architectural Theory for the Early Modern Era I. Sant’ Andrea – Mantua, Italy – 15 Cent. – Alberti – Ren aissance  Context oVaulted churches with coffers (haven’t seen these since ancient Rome) oColumn and wall  basis of Alberti’s design  Alberti’s own theory and thinking of early modern which is a little strange since he was a lawyer not an architect oColumn – basis of Brunelleschi’s design oConnect vertical supports to walls oAlberti’s Wall and Column Theory  A row of columns is nothing other than a wall that has been pierced in several places by openings  For arched colonnades quadrangular columns are required  On top of the columns capitals the experienced architects of antiquity would add a quadrilateral plinth  Alberti’s Architectural Theory oExploration of the wall (not the column) 1-27-2016  Creating chapels on sides of the nave that mimic the ceiling of the nave  Beauty of the chapel based on wall o Vault Christian basilicas? Brunelleschi did not do so…  Vault = the highest form of architecture there is in Alberti’s mind and designing a church is the highest accomplishment in an architect’s career so make the most of it o New façade type  Importance of variety – pilasters that frame the façade  Classical temple front + Roman triumphal arch = Christian triumph over death  Humanism o Organic unity – exterior is a reflection of the interior o Dimensions even line up when you place photos next to each other  15 Century Aesthetics o Intellectually measured o Emphasis on the mind o Space is absence of mass within a grid cage corresponding to constructions of artificial perspective o Planar walls o Light is even o Meditative atmosphere 1-27-2016 II. Piazza Pio II – Pienza, Italy – 15 cent – Alberti and Bernardo Rossellino – Renaissance  Context oA pope (Pius II) makes his hometown into an idea town based on Alberti’s architectural theory oPius II changes the name of the whole town to be named after him oWants an entire piazza made after him  Urbanistic Principles oIdeal town = idea viewing points, buildings coordinate in a grid around, intellectually measured, main building that stands out the most, classical architecture oDifference with the Renaissance Ideal city  There is a grid  A kind of centered building  Not really a perspectival view  Theory oPienza Cathedral  Brand new cathedral with a gothic interior and renaissance façade  Pope Pius II said that the Gothic hall church “arrangement is more beautiful and makes the church lighter … when the sun shines they let in so much light that the church goers imagine themselves in a house of glass, not of stone … In my opinion the Germans are wonderful mathematicians and in architecture they surpass all people.”  Idiosyncratic – the interior and the façade don’t go together oPalazzo Piccolomini  Open porticos on three stories (a new idea)  Rectangular cross windows coming from rome creating a hybrid of the contemporary Florentine and Roman windows 1-27-2016 oBishops Palace (Palazzo Vescovile)  Windows were placed on just a streamline molding unlike the Piccolomini where the windows rest on a cornice  Square plan  Cross windows but without arches on the top oCanons House and the Carpenters House  Long established house type for the middle class region  Brick housing – roots in the cities vernacular style  Small house and town hall next to it have Florentine windows  Classical style is present but not dominant  Carpenters house differs in scale, material, window type and ornament from all the rest – represents vernacular architecture – no plaster or ashlar masonry  Humanism oPiazzo Pio II perspectival?  Not really  There is not a centered view on the ideal view  The streets gently curve in their own way making the city plan more organic oGrid on the piazza gives a sense of unity with the buildings around it and guide you through the multitude of variety in the buildings around it  Movement oThe three main streets all converge to the pienza and create a view of buildings emerging and disappearing  organic plan more exciting than a grid city plan 1-29-2016 Early Modern Northern Europe: Climatic Factors and Regional Diversity I. House of Jacques Coeur – Bourges, France – 15 cent – Gothic – Architect Unknown  Early modern socio-economic context oJacques Coeur – owner of the house – business man  French merchant-financier-capitalist  Ties for richest man with Giovanni Cosomo  King made him the treasurer of France and then realized he was making too much money just through business so the King thought he must be stealing so he threw Coeur in jail  Plan oMedieval Castle  Medieval bailey  early modern court of honor  Defensive Towers  stair towers and specialized chambers oThis version: the ‘bailey’ or walls are now the actual house  Façade o Gargoyles are put into the design o Incredible amount of small detail 1-29-2016 o NO classical language and NO abstraction o Steep roof o Round windows o Privacy  The placement of fireplaces and larger windows shows more of what is happening on the inside than the Palazzo Medici  Has his business people living with him instead of having a great hierarchy of rooms to reach him o Urban Implications  Has two entrances – a door for people and a door for carts of carriages  Two “windows” that have sculptors of people that look down on the people walking by to make it seem like they are talking to passersby people  This creates a “screen” of privacy rather than a complete wall of privacy II. Chateau of Chambord – Chambord, France – 16 cent – Renaissance  Political Context oBeginning of establishing a territorial state oThe kind did this by not having a ‘capital’ oKing would move around and stay in different places all around the country therefore there was a boom of many chateaus being made oContact with Italy (1498-1525)  While the kings went through Italy helping them fight a war they noticed the Italians had a new way of designing  Most of the kings didn’t really find it interesting though until a little bit later  Renaissance architecture in Italy  Much more ornament  Huge scale  What did they pick up from Italy and bring to France  They picked up geometric regularity  Square things off  Stairway built on the inside rather than the outside 1-29-2016  An entrance on the low exterior wall + a courtyard + the rooms + squared garden + chapel = all on one axis  Medieval Typologies oPlan  Based in a square grid  Divided by a greek cross  Exterior has a sense of a keep  Renaissance interior oStereotomy – the art of precise stone masonry  Very exact masonry and connection between stones  Pilasters  Looks like a pilaster but is made out of stacked stones  Shows that the French are taking ideas from the Italians but still using their stereotomy skills oRoof symbolizing seigneurial power  Recalling vertical elements  Classical  Not like Brunelleschi or Alberti  Innovations oRenaissance Classical Ornament  Multiple color renaissance vocabulary  Classical columns – profusion of ornament oDouble helix staircase (Leonardo da Vinci?)  In the middle of the building  Adds a sense of privacy  First time ever made  Goes from basement to roof top  Windows in the staircase go pier to pier with rounded tops  Glazed windows people would go to the roof to look at the view and also watch to see when the hunters were coming back oApartment Suite  In the towers  King has his own apart from the main square  Opposite side of the main square is the chapel  All the towers are the same and symmetrical  Towers have a sense of privacy cause they all have different functions


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