Japan 50 Week 2
Japan 50 Week 2 JAPAN 50
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Lam on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JAPAN 50 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Caleb Carter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
1 | J a p a n e s e 5 0 Lecture 3 – April 4 th Asuka Basics - Asuka is the site of the Yamato court during most of the 7 Century - Dates: 592-710 - Main Historical events: 645: Coup d’etat ( A quick and decisive seizure of governmental power by a strong military or political group) against Soga 663: Defeat of Paekchon River 67: Jinshin War Translation from Tenji to Tenmu - Yamato has no court system, court is later established Did not have a lot of power in various locations Closer you live to the court, the higher rank you are - “Emperors” established - “Mokkan” 木木 Buddhism th th - Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (4 -5 c. B.C.E.) A.k.a. the Buddha (“awakened one”) or Sakyamuni (“wise man of the Sakya tribe”) Lived in Northern India/Southern Nepal - Spread: Silk Road trade routes (land & sea) China: Han Dynasty (207 BC – 220 CE) th Korean peninsula: 4 century Japan: 6 th Four Truths 1. Suffering Life is suffering – birth, sickness, aging, death 2. Cause of Suffering Attachment of repulsion to things, ignorance 3. Stopping Suffering can cease -> Nirvana 4. Path Leads out of suffering Nara Basics 2 | J a p a n e s e 5 0 - Nara is the capital name - Dates: 710 - 794 - Main historical events: 712: Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters) 718: Yoro codes promulgated 720: Nihon Shoki (Chronicles of Japan) 735 - 737: Smallpox epidemic 752: Dedication of Todaiji Buddha 794: Move of Capital to Heian (Kyoto) Lecture 4 – April 6 th Kokin Wakashu (古古古古古 ) - Presented to Emperor Daigo in 905 - Main compiler: Ki no Tsurayuki - Twenty volumes, 1111 poems 3 | J a p a n e s e 5 0 - Became the essential classic of Heian poetry Heian Basics - “Heian” (木木) is the name of the capital city - Dates: 794 – 1185 - Main events: 858: Fujiwara no Yoshifusa assumes title of “regent” 995-1027: Fujiwara no Michinaga controls court 1068-1160: Rule by retired emperors 1159-1185: Taira clan controls capital The Fujiwara lineage - Marriage politics Marry own daughters to future emperors in order to gain power in the court - The posts of Regent and Chancellor Regent: person who guides child emperor Chancellor: person who guides adult emperor Allows the Fujiwara full power over the state no matter who the emperor is Fujiwara no Michinaga (966-1027) - Controlled Court from 995 until death - Uncle to 2 emperors, Grandfather to 3 The Economy - Public land and private estates (shoen) - Private estates: Exempt from taxes Immune from inspection - Privatization of estates Enriches government bureaucrats Reduces influence and power of State - By end of Heian Period, half of Japan’s land is privates The Era of Cloistered Emperors 4 | J a p a n e s e 5 0 - Retired Emperors become real Power behind Fujiwara minister - Competition between multiple factions (multiple retired emperors) - Involvement of Warrior clans: Taira (Heika) and Minamoto (Genji) Heian Buddhism Tendai - Founder is Saicho, center: Mt.Hiei Main Text: Lotus Sutra Shingon - Founder is kukai, center: Mt. Koya Main text: Mahavairocana (Dainichi) Sutra Awakening in this bodily existence Esoteric practices: mudras, mantras, mandalas Pure Land (Pietism) – multiple schools Faith in Amida (Buddha of Infinite Light) Chanting of nenbutsu (Name of Amida) Heian Writing - Chinese writing (kanbun 木木 ): The international writing system of East Asia All official governmental documents Chinese poetry Diaries - Kana ( 木木) writing: Used for vernacular writing in Heian court Japanese poetry Diaries and other vernacular writings Tales (monogatari) The Pillow Book - Sei shonagon – lady in waiting to Empress Teishi - Pillow Book, finished around 1005, focuses on Teishi’s salon, circa 993- 4 - Three types of selections: lists, essays, diaries Heian Literature - Chinese poetry (shi 木, kanshi 木木 ) - Japanese Poetry (uta 木,waka 木木) Kokin Wakahu (Ancient and Modern Japanese Poetry Collection) - Women’s Literature (Usually in Japanese) 5 | J a p a n e s e 5 0 Diaries (nikki 木木) and other writings Tales (monogatari 木木) Tale of Genji - Murasaki Shikibu (d. ca. 1014) Lady in waiting to Empress Shoshi - “Genji 木木” means “of the Minamoto clan” - The fictional story of a successful challenge to Fujiwara dominance
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