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Design Sources: Week Three

by: Katie Potter

Design Sources: Week Three Design 1081

Katie Potter

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About this Document

These notes cover what we went over in Sources of Modern Design for Week Three.
Sources of Modern Design
J. A. Chewning
Class Notes
Sources, Design, Modern, DAAP, University of Cincinnati, three
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Potter on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Design 1081 at University of Cincinnati taught by J. A. Chewning in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Sources of Modern Design in Graphic Design at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
Sources of Modern Design Notes – Week Three Important Information: Three multiple choice quizzes, must be in attendance to take: th -Thursday, February 11 -Tuesday, March 15 th st -Thursday, April 21 Compact Machine of Production and Consumption: Clocks and Watches, Sewing Machines, Razors and Cameras Clocks and Watches Watches used to be small and not worn by that many people (reserved for the rich) Usually only one clock in a house - Some might have a case (grandfather clock) In the 19 century clocks became mass produced and available to the growing middle and upper classes More options became available for clocks and watches due to new demand Time-keeping became very important during the Industrial Revolution v Time=money Companies began to run on a business model focusing on producing a certain number of objects within a certain amount of time - Very different to how people used to work, especially farmers - Clocks had been previously associated w/ churches and religion, because prayers and meetings were held at certain times of the day Time cards began to be used to keep track of worker’s pay and overtime Clocks and pocket watches dictated what people did throughout the day and when Importance and popularity of clocks and watches made them very valuable - Many different styles and cases were made - Began to be worn as accessories, not just used for keeping time anymore Watches continued to become more fancy and complex from the 1920s to now Sewing Machines Was invented several times, but never caught on in the manufacturing world - People feared that the machines would take away jobs - People would go into factories and destroy them Women in sweatshops would hand sew garments - Typically women from farms Took hold in the Industrial Revolution when “ready to wear” clothes were needed - Mostly uniforms for soldiers going into war - Rich people preferred hand sewn garments, still produced • Isaac Singer- Creator of the first-mass produced sewing machine, hand-cranked, models for both home and factory use Sewing machine accepted into factories around the time of the Civil War Depending on size and amount of decoration, sewing machine could be used in a home or in a factory Allowed women to create their own clothing - Standardized printed patterns available - Usually learned how to sew from their mothers Safety Razors Safety razors took place of the straight razor (basically a knife blade on a handle) Men usually had beards b/c shaving was so hard/prone to injury - Would shave at a barber’s Safety razors made it possible for everyone to shave effectively - Barber shops lost a lot of business b/c of this Razors had detachable blades, didn’t need to be sharpened or honed before use - Blades got dull after a while Blades needed to be switched, companies made a lot of money off of these blades • King Camp Gillette- created a best-selling version of the safety razor Beards and facial hair became unpopular until around the 1960’s “New Face/New Man” was the standard for what good-looking men looked like Cameras Would take several minutes to take a single photo, subjects had to stay still for long periods of time Lots of equipment needed to take good photos or photos with different styles/exposures Used fragile glass and heavy metal lens to shoot different pictures v Professional activity Difficult and laborious process to develop good photos - Had to have dark rooms - Needed to be good at chemistry • George Eastman- created dry plates for cameras instead of glass Box camera w/ spool of film made in 1818 for amateur photographers - Had to ship camera back to the company to get pictures developed - Understandable and easy to use Foldable cameras w/ improved picture quality made Childrens’ cameras created as well - Popular brand called “Brownies”, based off of a popular cartoon at the time Albums became popular as people wanted to document their lives and activities Cameras began to try and create color - Early attempts used two color filters, one red and one blue, overlaid to create the look of color Motion picture was experimented w/ as well Nickelodeons showed short motion pictures through personal viewing machines - Costed a nickel - Required a lot of film Silent films became popular - Would sometimes play a record alongside a film to give the illusion of sound Sound was added in 1927, sometimes called “talkies” Wizard of Oz was one of the first films to feature color (1939) Not long afterward, home video cameras became available for families Compact Machines of Production and Consumption: Telegraph, Telephones, Typewriters, and Cash Registers Telegraphs Used a certain code to communicate through a wire across long distances • Code was based on 0s, 1s, and 2s (space=0, dot=1, dash=2) • Used for very short and direct questions and answers Professional activity (operators had to be very skilled at understanding the code and writing or translating it for clients) Symbolic of progress and power in America Wires were eventually able to carry more than one message at a time • Added convenience to process of sending messages to people across the US The Transatlantic cable was laid under the sea b/t US and England • Was a “Victorian internet” • Much faster than previous communication • Letters sent by ship could take up to a month to get to or from England Telegraph offices were made, people could send and pick up messages • Similar to a post office Telephones Candlestick phone was the first phone created, and it remained unchanged for years • Style or orientation of phone changed, but basic parts same • Usually only one phone per house Phone companies thought that the system of phones would be centralized around a single broadcaster System was much more decentralized, with person to person broadcasters Operators would connect a caller to a receiver by connecting cords into the proper circuits at a circuit board • Dial systems created in the 1920s to help reduce labor needed from operators • Gave more privacy to the callers Usually women operators • Thought to have nicer voices and be more courteous Phone became more than just for business v Social network People could communicate at any time of the day, anywhere Multiple phones in a house became common, with many new styles • Colored telephones became popular • More streamlined Typewriters Completely mechanical; springs, levers, and pivot points keep keys in place Carbon ribbon pressed onto paper to create a letter on a piece of paper Standardized system used to set letters on typewriter • Couldn’t be arranged alphabetically, was too slow QWERTY was decided as the best arrangement of keys • Much more ergonomic than alphabetical • Still the standard system of key arrangement for keyboards Inner workings of typewriters stayed very similar, outside was redesigned • Portable typewriters popular for college students Electric typewriters created • Much easier to type Typing ball inside had every letter, number, and punctuation needed • Rolled around to key typed and put that on the paper • Made it so a typist didn’t need to punch keys Different types of fonts and styles could be used with typing balls Cash Registers Made to look formidable, scare potential thieves from stealing Made in factories with a lot of different styles • Wheeled around because of their weight Could be seen at trade shows, had many different buttons, ornaments, and decorations Electrical cash registers made, more convenient and less heavy • Charles Franklin Kettering- invented the electric cash register, early form of credit approval, and the self-starting car engine


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