BSC 1010, Week 4 Notes
BSC 1010, Week 4 Notes BSC1010
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Betsabe Gonzalez on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC1010 at Florida International University taught by Thomas Pitzer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 183 views. For similar materials see Biology I in Biology at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Chapter 6 quotEnergy and Metabolism Thermodynamics the branch of chemistry concerned with energy changes Energy the capacity to do work I 4 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Energy of motion Stored Energy Moving objects perform work Objects that are not moving but have the By causing other matter to move capacity to do so Forms of energy Mechanical heat sound electric current light or radioactivity Heat Measure of the random motion of molecules The most convenient way of measuring energy Kcal unit of heat 1kcal1000 cal 1 joule0239 cal Redox Reactions Play a key role in the ow of energy through biological systems Oxidation The loss of electrons Reduction The gain of electrons The Laws of Thermodvngmics and Free Energy 1St Law Energy cannot be created or destroyed 2nd Law Entropy disorder in the universe increases 393 Chemical bonding reduces disorder heat increases it Free Ener2V G The amount of energy actually available to break and form other chemical bonds Enthalpy Energy contained in a molecule s chemical bonds TS Degree of disorder T absolute temperature S what you can t use G HTS G positive The products of the reaction contain more free energy than the reactants Endergonic Any reaction that requires an input of energy G negative The products contain less free energy than the reactants Exergonic Spontaneously releases free energy Activation Energy The extra energy needed to destabilize existing chemical bonds Ways in which the rate of reactions can be increased 1 By increasing the energy of reacting molecules 2 By lowering activation energy Catalysis Lowering the activation energy Catalyst Allows the reaction to occur ATP Building block for RNA Source of Energy Structure Five carbon sugar ribose serves as the framework to which other subunits are attached Adenine an organic molecule composed of two carbons Enzymes Function Alters the activation energy of a reaction Substrate The molecules that will undergo the reaction Active Site Region that binds to the substrate Enzyme Substrate Complex Substrate binds to the enzyme at the active site Multienzyme Complexes Non covalently bonded assemblies l Advantages 1 Unwanted side reactions are prevented 2 All reactions are controlled as a unit 3 The product of one reaction can be delivered to the next enzyme without releasing it to diffuse away Inhibitors molecules that bind to an enzyme to decrease enzyme activity V Competitive Inhibitors Compete with the substrate for binding to the same active site blocking the active site V Noncompetitive Inhibitors Change the shape of the active site and makes enzyme unable to bind substrate 0 Allosteric enzymes Possess an allosteric site where molecules other than substrate bind 0 Allosteric inhibitors Bind to the allosteric site to inactivate enzyme 0 Allosteric activators Bind to the allosteric site to activate the enzyme 393 Feedback inhibition Regulate biochemical pathways The end product of the pathway is an allosteric inhibitor of an earlier enzyme in the pathway Metabolism All reactions occurring in us V Anabolism Chemical Reactions that expend energy to make new chemical bonds V Catabolism Chemical Reactions that harvest energy when bonds are broken 393 Additional molecules that enzymes require for proper enzymatic activity 0 Cofactors usually metal ions found in the active site participating in catalysis 0 Coenzyme Often used as electron donor or acceptor in a redox reaction
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