God is Not One: Christianity
God is Not One: Christianity Rel - 1103-002
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Smith on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Rel - 1103-002 at Oklahoma State University taught by Stephanie Wheatley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Religions in Religious Studies at Oklahoma State University.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Into. T o World Religions – Christianity Intro o Before orthodoxy had the power to cast out “heretics,” Christianity was a very diverse religion. o Do not confine God’s speech to the Hebrew of the Old Testament or the Greek of the New Testament Muslim’s have resisted translating the Quran because they insist that the revelation is only its original Arabic Christians, on the other hand, view the translation, publication, and distribution of Bibles in different languages as a sacred duty Contributes to the diversity of the Christianity o Incarnation - the core of Christian teaching The idea that God took on a human form and lived amongst humans as Jesus Christ Soft Monotheism and the Trinity o Doctrine of incarnation created in 325 at the Council of Nicaea – referred to as the Nicene Creed Organized around the doctrine of the Trinity – God, Son, and the Holy Spirit Accepted by the three major branches of Christianity: Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism o Monotheistic Soft monotheism compared to the hard monotheism of the Jews or Muslims Who refuse to petrify God in images or imagine God in a human form o The Nicene Creed Establishes the Trinity Incarnation through Jesus Christ Born through the Virgin Mary, crucified, dies, and rises from the dead after 3 days and ascends to heaven. Concludes with statements that affirm the divine inspiration of the Christian Bible, the unity of the church, and the initiation rite of baptism. o The major schisms in Christian history have been due to doctrinal disagreements rather than ritualistic disagreements Orthodoxy (the right thought) over orthopraxy (the right practice). “We believe,” Jesus (A Trilogy) o Christianity The that revolves around the person of Jesus, whom is regarded as the Son of God, Savior, and Christ (meaning Messiah, the coming kind who will remake the world) o Jesus means different things to different people in different times and places Shifting with cultural, political, and economic times o For all Christians, he represents the power of God in the world 2 o Christianity is not just a doctrinal religion, but also a religion with a story Referred to as the gospel, meaning “good news” Narrative typically running from sin to salvation o Since Adam and Eve, human beings have committed sins Seven Deadly Sings: pride, envy, anger, sloth, gluttony, lust, and greed Refers generally to the human propensity toward wrongdoing and evil There is nothing they can do on their own to merit salvation from sin o “Rescue Religion” Rescue is made possible through Jesus dying on the Cross Good Friday, a sinless Jesus took our sins onto Himself, three days later (on Easter) Jesus demonstrated God’s power over sin by rising from the dead o The “good news” is that anyone who hears this story, confesses their sins, and turns to Jesus for forgiveness can be saved 2.2 Billion Saved o renegade movement until Constantine converted to Christianity in 312, transforming Christians from the persecuted to the persecuting insiders 3 o The bible is the worlds number one bestseller, Jesus is the most recognizable icon, and Christianity is the worlds most popular and widely scattered religion 1/3 of the world’s population identify as Christian o Christianity split into two main branches, Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy, in the Middle Ages Theological dispute over whether church authority should be centralized (the Catholic position) or decentralized (the orthodox position) Protestant Reformation o The next great split in Christianity during the sixteenth-century in Europe Martin Luther created ninety-five all-important questions of salvation, and how to get it Are Christians saved from sin by some combination of faith and work? Or is it sola fides, faith alone, good enough? o Reformers (Luther, Calvin, Zwingli) Wanted to conduct worship and read the bible in local languages, rather than in the Latin mandated by the Vatican Do away with controversial practices such as selling indulgences “justification by grace through faith” and sola scriptura, meaning the Bible alone o Council of Trent (1514-65) – schism was complete o Protestants agreed with Catholics on the problem of sin and the solution of salvation 4 Disagreed on the techniques that would take you to this goal o Protestants insisted that the religious goal could be attainted by all who offered up their everyday activities to the divine Sola fides, faith alone o Catholic Counter-Reformation reacted to Protestant attacks by reaffirming traditional doctrines on such matters as sin, salvation, and the sacraments At the Council of Trent, the Vatican affirmed the importance of interior piety by insisting that laypeople make confession at least once a year Lutherans, Calvinists, Anglicans, and Anabaptists o Because of the Protestants’ insistence that all could read the Bible in their own language, Protestantism itself splintered Four main branches: Lutheran, Reformed, Anglican, and Anabaptist o Lutheran Comprises of followers of Martin Luther, Emphasized liturgy in their worship services, characterized by the robust singing of hymns Reject the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, which says the bead and wine in Holy Communion are actually turned into the body and blood of Jesus Argue for the “real presence” of Jesus at the Eucharist o Reformed 5 Protestants influences by John Calvin’s beliefs in absolute sovereignty of God, and the total depravity of human beings Predestination of all people before birther to heaven or hell Puritans were Calvinists, who left for New England in the seventeenth-century and helped turn Calvinism into the dominant religious impulse in colonial and early America o Anglican Comprises of denominations that grew out of the notorious split of King Henry VIII from the papacy in 1534 See themselves as chartering the middle path between Catholicism and Protestantism In many respects, close to Catholics Refer to their clergy as priests, commemorate the lives of saints, and typically celebrate Holy Communion every Sunday o Anabaptist Literally means “rebaptizer” Defined more by their attitudes toward war and government than by their practice of adult baptism The Amish and Mennonites are Anabaptists “peace churches” insist on sharp separation from church and state Protestant and Catholic Cosmos 6 o The central difference between the two religions concerns how each populates the world with sacred power Catholics Filled with people and objects saturated with the sacred Access God by praying to the saints, parading through the streets on their feast days, or going on pilgrimage to churches named in their honor o Also access God through seven sacraments performed by priests: baptism, confirmation, reconciliation (confession), Holy Communion, marriage, ordination of priests, and anointing the sick (the last rites) Pope, whose special powers have extended to papal infallibility, the ability to speak without error on matters of doctrine and morals Protestants “knights of faith” Reject papal authority and typically refer to their clerics not as priests but as ministers or pastors Protestants reduce Catholic sacraments to two: baptism and Holy Communion o Quakers completely reject the sacraments 7 During service, the bible is read to the congregation and the minister interprets the text for the congregation o Essentially: Catholics can get to God through saints and relics and popes and priests and sacraments and the Bible. Protestants get to God without intermediaries and read the Bible with God’s guidance alone rather than through a net of papal authority and church tradition o Although Protestant themes seem to resonate with modern Western values such as liberty and equality, half of today’s Christians are Catholics o Since the aggiornamento (updating) of the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), Catholics have come closer to Protestants on many key issues, not least their view of the church as a “people of God” rather than a hierarchy of popes and bishops Mormonism o The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints One of the world’s fastest growing religious movements o Founded by Joseph Smith Jr. Asked God for help in deciding which protestant denomination was true God said none of them o Book of Mormon After Smith’s revelation with God, an angel named Moroni visited him and told him of gold tablets - buried during fifth century in a hill - not far away from his home 8 Dug up the tablets and translated their Reformed Egyptian” and published the results as the Book of Mormon In this book, Jesus travels to the New World after His resurrection and before his Ascension, planting His true church in the soil of the Americas o Share affinities with Protestant groups, but they do not see themselves as Protestant Most Christians believe that Mormonism veers too far away from traditional Christian creeds Ex: Mormons claim that God has a body, and that humans can become gods Old Testament practices of polygamy and theocracy Though Mormons view the Bible as the word of God, they also recognize three extra-biblical books as scripture: the Book of Mormon, Pearl of Great Price, and Doctrine and Covenants Believe in ongoing revelation, which allows their presidents to modify beliefs and practices via prophecy o Widely persecuted from the start Currently residing in Salt Lake City, Utah o Growing religious practice, as many celebrities, writers, politicians, etc. are Mormon The Evangelical Century o The next great even in Christian history was the rise of evangelicalism in the nineteenth century 9 o 4 distinguishing marks Biblicism Emphasis on the bible as the inspired word of God Crucucentrism Emphasis on Jesus’s redemptive death on the cross Conversionism Experience of the “new birth” Activism Emphasis on preaching and performing the gospel o Christianity is a missionary religion “go and make disciples of all nations” o As evangelicalism expanded, experience and emotions trumped doctrine and the intellect o Often confused with fundamentalism Evangelicals tend to speak of the Bible in terms of its inspiration, rather than its infallibility Do not read it as a geological/history textbook Fundamentalists as “an evangelical who is angry at something” and that something is modernity The Pentecostal Century o Pentecostalism’s distinctive feature is baptism in the Spirit 10 An additional experience of grace after conversion often evidenced by ecstatic speaking in unknown tongues, or glossolalia Relocating the divine from “out there” to “in here” Giving the Holy Spirit its due o Azusa Street in 1906 - founded Since its founding, Pentecostalism has developed in the world’s fastest growing Christian movements in part because it appeals powerfully to the powerless and the poor Brown Christians o 63% of Christians live in Asia, Africa or Latin America o The LDS Church epitomize this global shift Christianity and Islam o Today, these two religions are the greatest in the world Together comprising of more than half the population and most suicide bombers/drone attacks o Great Game Christians against Muslim’s on their respective ethics of war Mystics and the “Negative Way” o Both Islam and Christianity have strong traditions of mystics whose experiences of the divine have led them to embrace people of other religions as fellow 11 pilgrims in a mysterious journey toward the Ineffable and Indescribable 12
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