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Introduction to Sociology Chapter 1 Notes

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by: Hayden Barrow

Introduction to Sociology Chapter 1 Notes 1101

Hayden Barrow
Clayton State
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 1 of "Seeing Sociology," the textbook for Intro to Sociology.
Introduction to Sociology
Lisa Holland-Davis
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayden Barrow on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1101 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Lisa Holland-Davis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
Clayton State Introduction to Sociology Chapter 1 Notes - Sociology is the systematic and scientific study of society. - Auguste Comte (1798-1857) argued that Sociology is a science, not a philosophy. Therefore, it is exempt from the whims of opinion and is subject to the scientific method. - Karl Marx (1818-1883), the author of The Communist Manifesto, sought to find out what caused conflict. He ultimately decided that class conflict, or problems between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, was the vehicle that propelled society from one epoch to the next. - Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), in the midst of immense change due to the industrial revolution, questioned what held society together. He noted that industrial cities had a tendency toward anomie, or a lack of morals. While preindustrial societies are characterized by mechanical solidarity (system of social ties based on uniform thinking and behavior) industrial societies are geared more toward organic solidarity, or a system in which people become known for their role in the division of labor. - Max Weber (1864-1920) explored motivations for social action in the post industrial world: 1. Traditional – a goal is pursued because it was pursued in the past 2. Affectional – a goal is pursued due to the emotions of people 3. Value-rational – a goal is pursued with an awareness that anything must be done to achieve it. The actions taken are based on a code of conduct rather than emotion. 4. Instrumental rational – a goal is pursued by the most efficient means, regardless of consequences. - W.E.B Dubois (1868-1963) created the color line, a barrier that separated non-whites from whites in regard to their roles in labor. - Jane Addams (1860-1935) was the first female sociologist. She created the Hull House in Chicago and advocated for sympathetic knowledge, firsthand knowledge gained by living and working among those being studied. - Sociological imagination – a perspective that allows us to consider how outside forces shape our life and biography. - Issues v. troubles – troubles refer to the individual struggles of individual people, while issues refer to widespread struggles due to large social forces. - Egoistic – a state in which the ties integrating an individual to others in society are weak. - Altruistic – a state in which the individual is excessively integrated into the larger group - Anomic – a state in which the forces that regulate social ties are disrupted by dramatic changes in circumstances Sociological Perspectives - Functionalist – society is a stable, orderly system (Comte and Durkheim). A function is the contribution a part makes on society as a whole, be it manifest or latent. - Conflict – conflict theorists ask, “who benefits?” Conflict is an inevitable fact of life, and classes compete for resources. Conflict theorists work to expose the façade of legitimacy, an explanation to justify social arrangements that benefit some and disadvantage others. - Symbolic Interaction – Symbolic interactionists focus on social interaction and how it shapes who we are, as well as the symbols we attach to names, meanings, and values. - Feminist perspective – feminists give central focus to the unequal distribution of power based on gender. They believe that gender is the most prominent and persistent medium for inequality. They do not accept essentialist philosophy, or the belief that men and women are inherently different.


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