Week 2 of BIOB 170
Week 2 of BIOB 170 BIOB 170
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Lassettre on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOB 170 at University of Montana taught by Dr. Kevin Murray in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biological Diversity in Biology at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
▯ The first organisms to walk Earth were most likely the prokaryotes Prokaryotes—unicellular, usually .5 to 5 μm in diameter ▯ Peptidoglycan: a polymer made up of sugars cross-linked by short peptides ▯ Gram Stain (Hans Christian Gram): stain that shows difference in cell wall composition Gram-positive: the cell turns dark purple and the cell walls have a simple design and large quantities of peptidoglycan Gram-negative: the cell remains red/pink, has a complex design and small quantities of peptidoglycan. The cell typically has an outer membrane constructed of lipopolysaccharides and is resistant to antibiotics. ▯ Many prokaryotes have an outer layer that that is sticky and is called a capsule (well defined) or a slime layer (less well defined) ▯ Fimbriae: hair like appendages that help prokaryotes stick to their substrates ▯ Pilus: connection between two prokaryotes when DNA is being transferred. ▯ Taxis: movement toward or away from a stimulus Positive=toward Negative=away ▯ Flagellum: allows the prokaryote to move Found in eukaryotic cells too Because the three domains’ flagella are composed of different molecules and arrangements it is likely that these structures are analogous ▯ Prokaryote cells have far less DNA than eukaryotic cellsthe chromosome is circular vs being pill shapes ▯ Plasmids: small rings of independently replicating DNAcarry only a few genes ▯ Nucleoid: region of cytoplasm where the chromosome is housed ▯ Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission ▯ Endospores: resistant cells created by bacteria to live in harsh environments Metabolism: the biochemical reactions within a living organism ▯ Catabolic: form compounds ▯ Anabolic: breakdown compounds ▯ Prokaryote energy and carbon: Autotrophic: makes own organic compounds o Photosynthetic Oxygenic Uses water and produces oxygen Non-oxygenic Uses similarly structured molecules as water and produces elemental compounds o Chemosynthetic The energy used to make own organic compounds does not come from light, but rather oxidations of inorganic compounds Heterotrophic: uses premade organic compounds o Photoheterotrophic Photosynthesis with the requirement of organic carbon o Chemoheterotrophic Requires organic source for both carbon and energy source ▯ Obligate aerobes: NEED oxygen ▯ Obligate anaerobes: are POISONED by oxygen ▯ Anaerobic respiration: uses molecules other than oxygen to “breathe” ▯ Facultative anaerobes: use oxygen if present or can carry out anaerobic respiration and fermentation ▯ Nitrogen Fixation: uses nitrogen gas to convert to ammonia. The nitrogen is then incorporated into amino acids and other organic compounds. Enzyme used: nitrogenase Bacteria groups that can do this: o Cyanophytes Heterocyst: only carries out nitrogen fixation and then shares nutrients with neighboring cells (found in plants and the neighboring cells provide other nutrients with the heterocysts) o Rhizobia ▯ Nitrogen cycle: biogeochemical cycle Transformation of an element Both living/nonliving reservoirs Steps are done by different bacteria and SOME Archaeans Metabolically done by: o Photoautotrophic o Chemoheterotrophic o Chemosynthetic o Anaerobic ▯ ▯
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