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Week 2 of BIOB 170

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by: Victoria Lassettre

Week 2 of BIOB 170 BIOB 170

Marketplace > University of Montana > Biology > BIOB 170 > Week 2 of BIOB 170
Victoria Lassettre
GPA 3.57

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About this Document

These notes cover information covered during the second week. Concludes the prokaryote section and the start of the eukaryotic information will be included in week 3's notes, which should be posted...
Principles of Biological Diversity
Dr. Kevin Murray
Class Notes
Biology, Science
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Lassettre on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOB 170 at University of Montana taught by Dr. Kevin Murray in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biological Diversity in Biology at University of Montana.


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So much better than office hours. Needed something I could understand, and I got it. Will be turning back to StudySoup in the future

-Chanelle Schuster


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Date Created: 02/06/16
▯ The first organisms to walk Earth were most likely the prokaryotes  Prokaryotes—unicellular, usually .5 to 5 μm in diameter ▯ Peptidoglycan: a polymer made up of sugars cross-linked by short peptides ▯ Gram Stain (Hans Christian Gram): stain that shows difference in cell wall composition  Gram-positive: the cell turns dark purple and the cell walls have a simple design and large quantities of peptidoglycan  Gram-negative: the cell remains red/pink, has a complex design and small quantities of peptidoglycan. The cell typically has an outer membrane constructed of lipopolysaccharides and is resistant to antibiotics. ▯ Many prokaryotes have an outer layer that that is sticky and is called a capsule (well defined) or a slime layer (less well defined) ▯ Fimbriae: hair like appendages that help prokaryotes stick to their substrates ▯ Pilus: connection between two prokaryotes when DNA is being transferred. ▯ Taxis: movement toward or away from a stimulus  Positive=toward  Negative=away ▯ Flagellum: allows the prokaryote to move  Found in eukaryotic cells too  Because the three domains’ flagella are composed of different molecules and arrangements it is likely that these structures are analogous ▯ Prokaryote cells have far less DNA than eukaryotic cellsthe chromosome is circular vs being pill shapes ▯ Plasmids: small rings of independently replicating DNAcarry only a few genes ▯ Nucleoid: region of cytoplasm where the chromosome is housed ▯ Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission ▯ Endospores: resistant cells created by bacteria to live in harsh environments Metabolism: the biochemical reactions within a living organism ▯ Catabolic: form compounds ▯ Anabolic: breakdown compounds ▯ Prokaryote energy and carbon:  Autotrophic: makes own organic compounds o Photosynthetic  Oxygenic  Uses water and produces oxygen  Non-oxygenic  Uses similarly structured molecules as water and produces elemental compounds o Chemosynthetic  The energy used to make own organic compounds does not come from light, but rather oxidations of inorganic compounds  Heterotrophic: uses premade organic compounds o Photoheterotrophic  Photosynthesis with the requirement of organic carbon o Chemoheterotrophic  Requires organic source for both carbon and energy source ▯ Obligate aerobes: NEED oxygen ▯ Obligate anaerobes: are POISONED by oxygen ▯ Anaerobic respiration: uses molecules other than oxygen to “breathe” ▯ Facultative anaerobes: use oxygen if present or can carry out anaerobic respiration and fermentation ▯ Nitrogen Fixation: uses nitrogen gas to convert to ammonia. The nitrogen is then incorporated into amino acids and other organic compounds.  Enzyme used: nitrogenase  Bacteria groups that can do this: o Cyanophytes  Heterocyst: only carries out nitrogen fixation and then shares nutrients with neighboring cells (found in plants and the neighboring cells provide other nutrients with the heterocysts) o Rhizobia ▯ Nitrogen cycle: biogeochemical cycle  Transformation of an element  Both living/nonliving reservoirs  Steps are done by different bacteria and SOME Archaeans  Metabolically done by: o Photoautotrophic o Chemoheterotrophic o Chemosynthetic o Anaerobic ▯ ▯


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