Chapter 4 Outline
Chapter 4 Outline APSY.UE.0002
Popular in INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES
Popular in Psychlogy
This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
Reviews for Chapter 4 Outline
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/16
Reading: Chapter 4 Illusion: perception in which the way we perceive a stimulus does not match its physical reality Sensation: detection of physical energy by sense organs, which then send information to the brain Perception: the brain’s interpretation of raw sensory inputs We often blend the real with the imagined, going beyond the information given to us. By doing so, we simplify the world, and often make better sense of it in the process of Filling in. Sensation first allows us to pick up the signals in our environments, and perception then allows us to assemble these signals into something meaningful Sensation: Our Senses as Detectives Senses basic principles Transduction: going from the outside world to Within First Step: converting external energies or substances into a “language’ the nervous system understands Transduction: the process by which the nervous system converts an external stimulus, like light or sound, into electrical signals within neurons Sense receptor: specialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neural activity for a specific sensory system Sensation is greatest when we first detect a stimulus, then a declination of reaction occurs Sensory Adaptation: activation is greatest when a stimulus is first detected Psychophysics: Measuring The Barely Detectable Psychophysics: The study of how we perceive sensory stimuli based on their physical characteristics Absolute Threshold: Lowest level of stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect a change 50 percent of the time demonstrate how sensitive our sensory systems are Just Noticeable Difference Just Noticeable Difference (JND): The smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect relevant to our ability to distinguish a stronger from a weaker stimulus, kuje a soft noise from a slightly louder noise Weber’s Law: There is a constant proportional relationship between the JND and original stimulus intensity The stronger the stimulus, the bigger the change needed for a change in stimulus intensity to be noticeable Signal Detection Theory Signal Detection Theory: theory regarding how stimuli are detected under different conditions ex. figuring out what a friend is saying on a cell phone when there’s a lot of static connection Signal - to -noise ratio: It becomes harder to detect a signal as background noise increases Response Biases: tendencies to make one type of guess over another when we’re in doubt about whether a weak signal is present or absent under noisy conditions People report sound when present: true positive People report sound that wasn’t there: false positive People deny hearing a sound when present: false negative People deny hearing a sound that wasn’t there: true negative Sensory Systems Stick to One Sense - Or do they? Johannes Muller proposed the doctrine of specific nerve energies: even though there are many distinct stimulus energies (light, sound, touch) the sensation we experience is determined by the nature of the sense receptor, not the stimulus ex. rubbing your eyes and seeing vivid sensations of light [phosphenes] caused by pressure on your eye’s receptor cells McGurk Effect: demonstrates that we integrate visual and auditory information when processing spoken language and our brains automatically calculate the most probable sound given the information from the two sources ex. hearing the audio track of one syllable (ba) spoken repeatedly while seeing a video track of a different syllable being spoke (ga) produces the perceptual experience of a different hird sound (da) Sir Francis Galton - first to describe synthesia a condition in which people experience cross-modal sensations ex. hearing sounds when they see colors The Role of Attention Selective Attention: How We Focus On Specific Inputs Selective Attention: process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others Donald Broadbent’s filter theory of attention: views attention as a bottleneck through which information passes mental filter enables us to pay attention to important stimuli and ignore others \ Tested theory using dichotic listening: participants hear two different messages, one delivered to the left ear and one to the right ear. When asked to ignore messages delivered to one of the ears, they seemed to know little or nothing about these messaged Anne Treisman retested experiment and found the information we’ve supposedly filtered out of our attention is still being processed at some level - event when we’re not aware of it Cocktail Party Effect: our ability to pick out an important message, like our name, in a conversation that doesn’t involve us Tells us: the filter inside our brain, which selects what will and won’t receive our attention, is more complex than just an “on” or “off” switch. Even when seemingly “off”, it’s ready to spring into action if it perceives something significant Inattentional Blindness Inattentional Blindness: failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere demonstrate: we often need to pay close attention to pick out even dramatic changes in our environment ex. you’re too busy counting the number of times a person can shoot a basketball to notice a woman in a gorilla costume running across the court Change Blindness: a failure to detect obvious change in one’s environment particular concern for airplane pilots - fail to notice another plane taxiing across the runway as they’re preparing to land The Binding Problem: Putting the pieces Together Binding Problem: scientist inability to figure out how once the brain obtains all the information necessary, binds it together into a unified whole. Mind’s ability to seamlessly combine these visual cues into a unified perception of a scene hypothesis: rapid, coordinated activity across multiple cortical areas assists in binding Light: The Energy of Life Light: a form of electromagnetic energy- energy composed of fluctuating electric and magnetic waves Visible light = wavelength in the hundreds of nanometers Human Visible Spectrum - the narrow range of wavelength that humans respond to brightness is influenced directly by the intensity of the reflected light that reaches our eyes. Also depends on the overall lighting surrounding the object white objects reflects all light black objects absorb all light Hue: color of light 3 primary colors: blue red and green Additive color mixing: the mixing of varying amounts of the primary colors to produce another color subtractive color mixing: the mixing of colored pigments in paint or ink The Eye: How We Represent the Visual Realm Parts of the Eye Fovea: The part of the retina where light rays are most sharply focused Lens: Transparent disk that focuses light rays for near or distant vision Cornea: Curved transparent dome that bends incoming light Pupil: opening in the center of the iris that lets in light Iris: colored area containing muscles that control the pupil Fovea: The part of the retina where light rays are most sharply focused Optic Nerve: Transmits impulses from the retina to the rest of the brain Retina: innermost layer of the eye, where incoming light is converted into nerve impulses Eye Muscle: One of six surrounding muscles that rotate the eye in all directions How Light Enters The Eye Structures toward the front of the eyeball influence how much light enters our eye, and they focus the incoming light rays to form an image at the back of the eye The Sclera, Iris, and Pupil Sclera: white of the eye Iris: colored part of the ye controls how much light enters our eye Pupil: circular hole through which light enters the eye closing of pupil is a reflex response to light or objects coming toward us Dilation (expansion) of the pupil has psychological significance Pupils Dilate: trying to process complex information we view someone we find physically attractive reflect sexual interest: which is why people find those with larger pupils more attractive The Cornea, Lens, and Eye Muscles Cornea: curves transparent, layer covering the iris and pupil. Its shape bends incoming light to focus the incoming visual image at the back of the eye Lens: Part of the eye that changes curvature to keep images in focus The lens’ cells are completely transparent, allowing light to pass through them Accommodation: lenses change shape to focus light on the back of the eye, adapt to different perceived distances of objects Flat Lens (long and skinny): enables people to see distant objects Fat Lens (short and wide): enables people to focus on nearby objects The Shape of the Eye How much our eyes need to bend the path of light to focus properly depends on the curve of our corneas and overall shape of our eyes Myopia: (nearsightedness) results when images are focused in front of the rear of the eye due to our cornea being too steep or our eyes too long The ability to see close objects well and the inability to see far objects well Hyperopia (farsightedness): results when our cornes is too flat or our eyes too short an ability to see far objects well coupled with an inability to see near objects well The Retina: Changing Light Into Neural Activity Retina: a thin membrane at the back of the eye retina = “movie screen” onto which light from the world is projected Fovea: the central part of the retina and is responsible for acuity Acuity: sharpness of vision Rods and Cones Light passes through the retina to sense receptor cells located in its outermost layer Two types of receptor cells Rods: long and narrow, enable us to see basic shapes and forms rely on rods to see in low levels of light Dark Adaptation: time in dark before rods regain maximum light sensitivity Cones: receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in color require more light than rods sensitive to detail Photopigments: chemicals that change following exposure to light Photopigment in rods: rhodopsin The Optic Nerve Ganglion Cells: cells in the retinal circuit that contain axons, bundle all their axons together and depart the eye to reach the brain Optic nerve, travels from the retina to the rest of the brain contains the axons of ganglion cells Optic Chiasm: The fork in the road that the optic nerves arrive at once they leave the eye. half of the axons cross in the optic chiasm, the other half stay on the same side Blind Spot: the place where optic nerve connects to the retina. A part of the visual field that we can’t see region of the retina with no rods or sense receptors axons of ganglion cells push everything else aside How We Perceive Shape and Contour Hubel & Weisel: scientists who uncovered the mystery of shape and contour Many cells in V1 respond to slits of light of a specific orientation (vertical, horizontal, oblique) Simple Cells: display “yes-no” responses to slits of a specific orientation, but they need to be in a specific location Complex cells: orientation-specific, but their responses are less restricted to one location Feature Detection: our ability to use certain minimal patterns to identify objects Feature detector cells: cells that detects lines and edges How We Perceive Color Trichromatic Theory: Proposes that we base our color vision on three primary colors - blue, green, and red Dovetails with our having three kinds of cones, each maximally sensitive to different wavelengths of light Color blindness: inability to see some or all colors most often due to the absence or reduced number of one or more types of cones stemming from genetic abnormalities another cause is is damage to a brain area related to color vision Monochromats: have only one type of cone and thereby lose all color vision Dichromats: have two cones and are missing only one trichromats (humans, apes, and some monkeys): possess three kinds of cones Opponent Process Theory: Theory that we perceive colors in terms of three pairs of opponent colors: either red or green, blue or yellow, or black or white. Arose because the Trichromatic Theory failed to account for Afterimages: when we stare at a color for a long time and then look away, the color is replaced with another When We Can’t See or Perceive Visually Blindness: Commonly occur from Cataracts or Glaucoma Cataracts: a clouding of the lens of the eye Glaucoma: a disease that causes pressure on the eye and damages the optic nerve Touch is believed to be enhanced when one is blind. (controversial, not definite) Blindsight: How are some blind people able to navigate their worlds? Blindsight: the ability of blind people with damage to their cortex to make correct g uesses about the appearance of things around them People with blindsight have suffered damage to V1, the primary visual corte x, so that route of information flow to visual association areas is blocked. Co arser visual information still reached the visual association cortex through a n alternative pathway and bypasses V1. Echolocation: the ability to emit sounds and listen to their echoes to determine the ir distance from a wall or barrier evidence to prove humans are capable of a crude form of echolocation When using echolocation, parts of the brain associated with visual images i n sighted people become highly active Visual Agnosia: Visual agnosia: a deficit in perceiving objects a person with this condition can tell the shape and color of an object, but ca n’t recognize or name it Sound: Mechanical Vibration Vibration: mechanical energy traveling through the air Pitch Pitch: corresponds to the frequency of the wave higher frequency= higher pitch lower frequency = lower pitch measured in cycles per second, hertz (Hz) Human ear can pick up frequencies ranging from about 20 to 20,000 Hz Younger people are more sensitive to higher pitch tones than older adults Loudness The amplitude (height) of the sound wave corresponds to loudness (dB) Loud noise = increase in wave amplitude Timbre the quality or complexity of the sound musical instruments/human voices sound different because they differ in timbre The Structure and Function of the Ear Ear has three different parts: middle, inner, outer Outer Ear: consists of the pinna (the skin and cartilage flap) and ear canal has the simplest function funnels sound waves onto the eardrum Middle Ear: Contains the ossicles the three tiniest bones in the body, named the hammer, anvil, and stirrup after the shapes vibrates at the frequency of the sound wave, transmitting it from the eardrum to the inner ear Inner Ear: Sound wave enters the cochlea (bony, spiral-shaped sense organ used for hearing) and converts vibration into neural activity. Inner of the Cochlea is filled with thick fluid . Vibrations from sound waves disturb this fluid and travel tot he base of the cochlea - pressure is released and transduction occurs Located in inner ear: Organ of Corti, and basilar membrane Organ of Corti: tissue containing the hair cells necessary for hearing basilar membrane: membrane supporting the organ of Corti and hair cells in the cochlea Hair cells convert acoustic information into action potentials at the base of the basilar membrane: most excited by high-pitched tones at the top of the basilar membrane: most excited by low-pitched tones. Place Theory: specific place along the basilar membrane matches a tone with a specific pitch Frequency Theory: rate at which neurons fire the action potential reproduces the pitch works until 100 Hz Volley Theory: a variation of frequency theory that works for tones between 100 and 5,000Hz sets of neurons fire at their highest rate, slightly out of sync with each other to reach overall rates up to 5,000Hz When We Can t Hear Conductive Deafness: Due to a malfunctioning of the ear, especially a failure of the eardrum or the ossicles of the inner ear Nerve Deafness: due to damage to the auditory nerve Noise-induced hearing loss: damage to our hair cells caused by loud sounds, especially those that last a long time or are repeated accompanied with a ringing sound in ears Most loose hearing with age - due to the loss of sensory cels and regeneration of the auditory nerve Smell and Taste: The Sensual Senses Smell = olfaction (our sense of smell) Taste = gustation (our sense of taste) Seem + Taste are chemical senses - we derive these sensory experienced form chemicals in substances The avg. dog is at least 100,000 times more sensitive to smell than humans Using smell and taste to develop food preferences for “safe” foods and base them on a combination of smell and taste - we like what smells and tastes good to us What Are Odors and Flavors? Odors: airborne chemicals that interact with receptors in the lining of our nasal passages our noses are capable of detecting between 2,000 and 4,000 diff. odors Humans are sensitive to five basic tastes sweet salty sour bitter umami ( meaty or savory taste) There’s preliminary evidence for a sixth taste for fatty foods Sense Receptors for Smell and Taste Olfactory genes = smell genes humans have over 1,000 347 code for olfactory receptors Olfactory neurons recognize an odorant on the basis of its shape Taste Bud: Sense receptor in the tongue that responds to sweet, salty, sour, bitter, mani and perhaps fat. Each individual taste receptor on the tongue is slightly sensitive to all tastes certain sections of the tongue, however, are more prone to certain tastes Umami taste receptors were controversial, but now are considered to be the fifth taste They were found to have a lot of the neurotransmitter glutamate Monosodium glutamate (MSG) - derivative of glutamate - is a well known flavor enhancer Taste receptors for fat are controversial As soon as fat touches the tongue, it affects our bodies’ metabolism of fat Not triggered by olfactory receptor of fat: smelling fat does nothing, have to put fat on tongue Super Tasters: people with an overabundance of taste buds sensitive to oral pain and tend to avoid bitter tastes as a result With so little variety in taste receptors, we mostly rely on smells to guide us. Our taste perception is biased strongly by our sense of smell Olfactory and Gustatory Perception After odor interacts with sense receptors in the nasal passages, the resulting information enters the brain, reading the olfactory cortex and parts of the limbic system After taste information interacts with tastebuds, it enters the brain, reaching a taste - related area called gustatory cortex, somatosensory cortex (food has texture), and parts of the limbic system. A region of frontal cortex = a site of convergence for smell and taste Parts of the limbic system - amygdala- help us to distinguish pleasant from disgusting smells Gustatory cortex is activated when tasting disgusting food and viewing facial expressions of disgust damage to the gustatory cortex = don’t experience disgust Emotional disorders (anxiety & depression) can distort taste perception serotonin and norepinephrine ( chemical messengers whose activity is enhanced by antidepressants) make us more sensitive to taste Pheromone: odorless chemical that serves as a social signal to members of one’s species alter sexual behavior Vomeronasal orga[nlocated between nose and mouth ]is used to detect pheromones humans don’t develop the organ Nerve Zero - used by humans in replacement for pheromones When We Can’t Smell or Taste Damage to the olfactory nerve (and brain damage) can damage our sense of smell and ability to identify orders dangerous: may not detect gas leak Loss of taste may cause one to eat less taste can serve as a psychological flavoring that helps to ward of disease by boosting appetite Our Body Senses: Touch, Body Position, and Balance Somatosensory: the sense of touch, temperature, and pain Proprioception (kinesthetic sense): the sense of body position Vestibular Sense: the sense of equilibrium or balance The Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain Pressure, Temperature, and Injury Somatosensory system responds to stimuli applied to skin, temperature and injury. Specialized and Free Nerve Endings In The Skin Specialized nerve endings at the ends of sensory nerves on the skin are used to sense touch, pressure, and temperature Free Nerve Endings are used to sense touch, temperature, and especially pain far more plentiful than specialized nerve endings Nerve endings are spread unevenly across the body most located at fingertips, then lips, face, hands, and feet fewest in middle of back How We Perceive Touch and Pain Information of touch, temperature, and pain travel in somatic nerves before entering spinal cord Touch information travels more quickly than pain stimuli information Touch and pain have different functions: touch informs of immediate surroundings and urgent matters pain alerts us to take care of injuries Painful stimuli trigger the withdrawal reflex ex. touch a fire and pull away immediately Pain and touch information -> spinal reflexes -> brain sites dedicated to perception -> somatosensory cortex Threshold pain-producing stimulus has a threshold, a point at which we perceive it as painful Pain has large emotional component pain information-> partly somatosensory cortex and partly limbic centers associated with anxiety, uncertainty, and helplessness Gate Control Model: idea that pain is blocked or gated from consciousness by neural mechanisms in spinal cord pain varies from situation to situation depending on our psychological state Phantom Limb Illusion Phantom Pain: Pain or discomfort felt in an amputated limb 50-80% of amputees experiences phantom limb sensations Mirror box: a treatment for phantom limb pain patients position their other lib so that it’s reflected (in mirror) in exactly the position that the amputated limb would assume. When We Can’t Feel Pain Pain insensitivity extremely rare completely unable to detect painful stimuli might chew off a body part and not realize Some are able to identify the type of pain, but experience no significant discomfort from it Proprioception and Vestibular Sense: Body Position and Balance Proprioception (Kinesthetic Sense)- our sense of body position Vestibular Sense: sense of equilibrium or balance Proprioceptors: Telling The Inside Story Use proprioceptors to sense muscle stretch and force Two kinds of proprioceptors stretch receptors embedded in our muscles force detectors embedded in our muscle tendons Proprioceptor information -> spinal cord -> brain stem & thalamus. Brain combine information from our muscles and tendons to obtain a perception of our body’s location Vestibular Sense: A Balancing Act Semicircular Canals: Three fluid-filled canals in the inner ear responsible for our sense of balance Vestibular information reaches parts of the brain stem that control eye muscles and triggers reflexes that coordinate eye and head movements travel to the cerebellum - controls bodily responses that enables us to catch our balance when we’re falling Ergonomic: Human Engineering Human Factors: a field of psychology that optimizes technology to better suit our sensory and perceptual capabilities Parallel Processing: The Way Our Brain Multitasks Parallel Processing: The ability to attend to many sense modalities simultaneously Bottom-up processing: processing in which a whole is constructed from parts Top-down processing: conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectancies The two processes typically work hand in hand Perceptual Hyptheses: Guessing What’s Out There Perceptual Sets Perceptual Sets: set formed when expectations influence perceptions Tend to perceive the world in accord with our preconceptions Perceptual Constancy Perceptual Constancy: the process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions without: we’d see the world as continually changing perceptual Constancy: shape, size and color ex. when viewing a door from diﬀering perspectives we see a door as a door because of shape constancy, whether it’s completely shut, barely open, or more fully open Size Constancy: our ability to perceive objects as the same size no matter how far away they are from us. ex. we do not think our friends are shrinking from existence when they begin to walk away from us Color Constancy: our ability to perceive color across diﬀerent levels of lighting ex. even in low levels of light we see ﬁre ﬁghters as wearing bright yellow Gestalt Principles Subjective Contours: our brains often provide missing information about outlines Bistable image: an image we can perceive in two ways Gestalt Principles: rules governing how we perceive objects as wholes within their overall context help to explain why we see much of our world as consisting of uniﬁed ﬁgures or forms rather than confusing jumbles of lines and curves 1. Proximity: Objects physically close to each other tend to be perceived as uniﬁed wholes 2. Similarity: all things being equal, we see similar objects as comprising a whole, much more so than dissimilar objects 3. Continuity: we sill perceive objects as wholes, even if other objects block part of them 4. Closure: when partial visual information is present, our brains ﬁll in what’s missing 5. Symmetry: We perceive objects that are symmetrically arranged as wholes more often than those that aren’t. 6. Figure-grounds: perceptually, we make an instantaneous decision to focus attention on what we believe to be the central ﬁgure, and largely ignore what we believe to be the background Emergence - a perceptual gestalt that almost jumps out from the page and hits us all at once How We Perceive Faces Lower part of the temporal lobe responds to faces Neurons in the human hippocampus ﬁre selectively in response to celebrity faces Hypothesis: sprawling networks of neurons, rather than single cells, are responsible for face recognition How We Perceive Motion The brain judges how things in our world are constantly changing by comparing visual frames The Phi Phenomenon: the illusory perception of movement produced by the successive ﬂashing of images, our perception of what’s moving and what’s not are based on only partial information, with our brains taking their best guesses about what’s missing Motion blindness: patients can’t seamlessly string still images processed but heir brains into the perception of ongoing motion How We Perceive Depth Depth Perception: ability to judge distance and thee-dimensional relations Monocular depth cues: stimuli that enable us to judge depth using only one eye Binocular Depth Cues: stimuli that enable sis to judge depth using both eyes Monocular cues We rely on pictorial cues to give us a sense of what’s located where in stationary scenes Pictorial Cues that help us perceive depth Relative Size: All things being equal, more distant objects look smaller than closer objects Texture Gradient: the texture of objects become less apparent as objects move father away Interposition: one objects that’s closer our view of an object behind it. From this, we know which object is closer and which is father away Linear Perspective: the outlines of rooms or buildings converge as distance increases Height in Place: Ina scene, distant objects tend to appear higher, and nearer objects lower Light and Shadow: Objects cast shadows that give us a sense of their three- dimensional form Monocular Cue of Depth: motion parallax: the ability to judge the distance of moving objects from their speed Binocular Cues Binocular Disparity: left and right eyes transmit quite diﬀerent information for near objects but see distant objects similarity Binocular Convergence: When we look at nearby objects, we focus on them reﬂexively by using our eye muscles to turn our eyes inward, a phenomenon called convergence. Our brains are aware of how much our eyes are converging, and use this information to estimate distance Depth Perception Appears In Infancy we can judge depth as soon as we learn to crawl Visual Cliﬀ: a table and a ﬂoor several feet below, both covered by checkered cloth. A clear glass surface extends from he table out to the ﬂoor (creating the appearance of a sudden drop). Infants are then hesitant to crawl over the glass elevated several feet about ﬂoor. When Perception Deceives Us The Moon Illusion: The illusion that the mood appears larger when its's near the horizon than high in the sky Hypothesis: When the moon is in the sky, there's nothing else around for comparison . In contrast, when the moon is near the horizon we may perceive it as father away because we can see it next to things we know to be far away We're mistaken about the three-dimensional space in which we live, along with the moon. Ex. people have the misperception that the sky is shaped like a ﬂattened dome, leading us to see the moon as father away on the horizon than at the top of the sky Ames room illusion: Due to the placement of the walls and ceiling the room distorts the height of a person within the room. Muller-Lyer Illusion: a line of identical length appears longer when it ends in a set of arrow heads pointing inward than in a set of arrowheads pointing outward because we perceive lines as part of a larger context. people from diﬀerent cultures displayed diﬀering reactions Ponzo Illusion: (railroad track illustion) converging lines enclose two objects of identical size, leading us to perceive the object closer to the converging lines as larger. the brain assumes the object is father away (usually correct) and compensates by making the object look bigger Horizontal-Vertical Illusion: perceive the vertical part of an upside-down T as longer than the horizontal part. horizontal part is divided in half by the vertical part Ebbinghaus-Titchener Illusion: A circle seems larger surrounded by smaller circles and smaller when surrounded by larger circles. fools our eyes, but not our hands. People are still able to remain on target when reaching for the middle circle Subliminal and Extrasensory Perception Subliminal Perception and Persuasion Subliminal Perception: perception below the limen or threshold of conscious awareness When researchers ﬂash photographs quickly and participants can't correctly identify the content of the stimulus at better than chance levels, researchers deem it subliminal When investigators subliminally trigger emotions by exposing participants to words related to anger, these participants are more likely to rate other people as hostile Eﬀects of subliminal information often vanish when participants become aware of or even suspect attempts to inﬂuence them subliminally Subliminal Persuasion: subthreshold inﬂuences over our votes in elections, product choices, and life decisions people do not numbly succumn to Subliminal Persuasion speciﬁc words related to brand names doesn't inﬂuence people as the word "drink" does (makes them more thirsty) we can't engage in much, if any, in-depth processing of the meaning of subliminal stimuili Subliminal self-help tapes are ineﬀective Extrasensory Perception (ESP_: Fact or Fiction? Extrasensory Perception (ESP): perception of events outside of the known channels of sensation (seeing, hearing, touch) What's ESP, Anyways Parapsychologists: investigators who study ESP and related psychic phenomena There are three major types of ESP 1. Precognition: acquiring knowledge of future events before they occur through paranormal means 2. Telepathy: reading other people's minds 3. Clairvoyance: detecting the presence of objects or people that are hidden from view Is There Scientiﬁc Evidence For ESP? 1930s: Joseph Rhine launched full-scale study of ESP Used Zener Cards with ﬁve standard symbols on them (squiggly lines, star, circle, plus sign, and square Asked participants to 1. guess which card would appear 2. which card another participant has in mind 3. which card was hidden from view Rhine reported the avg. of 7 correct identiﬁcations per deck of 25 (ﬁve would be chance performance) There were MANY faults in Rhine's research Ganzfeld Technique experimenter covers participants' eyes with goggles to create a uniform visual ﬁeld when a red ﬂoodlight is directed toward the eyes. Another person acts like a sender and attempts to mentally transmit pictures .The participant then rates four pictures for how well it matches the mental imagery experienced. Only one of the pictures is the target the sender tried to transmit. Eﬀects were small and corresponded to chance diﬀerences in performance No scientiﬁc supporting evidence of ESP Why People Believe In ESP 41 percent of American adults believe in ESP Illusory Correlation: we tend to and recall events that are striking coincidences and ignore or forget events that aren't. Tendency to underestimate the frequency of coincidence Psychic Predictions Multiple End Points: keep their predictions so open-ended that they're consistent with almost any conceivable set of outcomes Cold Reading: the art of persuading people we've just met that we know all about them. (Sherlock Holmes)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'