Macromolecules, Cell Structure & Function
Macromolecules, Cell Structure & Function BIOL 3444 - 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by rocket0724 on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3444 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Thomas Chrzanowski in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Macromolecules PAGE 3 v Every number you see on the common fatty acids represents a _______ & is always even numbers Ø Saturated fatty acid § If there are double bonds, there are unsaturated fatty acids § As you add double bonds, the freezing temperature gets lower Ø The degree of flowidity becomes the amount of how many double bonds exist (turning to a solid at room temperature) v Glycerol is a very important molecule Ø Esterify 3 fatty acids to glycerol Ø A neutral triglyceride molecule v This is a hydrophyllic Ø Really wants to bond with water & get away from the other guys because they are hydrophobic Ø C, O, P, double bond O we call a phospoester. That is what makes cell membranes v Lipids & phospholipids are used for energy, but mainly used for cell membranes PAGE 4 v The other amino acids exist in the prokaryotes v When they bond, they do a dehydration v Each of the amino acids has a different chemical property PAGE 5 v The shape becomes established by all the charging & interaction between the molecules v Some of our antibiotics muck with the protein synthesis system to stop the formation of other bacteria cells v Gentle heating will break the hydrogen bonds & proteins will unfold & go to their primary structure v Harsh breaking is breaking covalent bonds v The stereoisomers looks like a tripod for a camera 1 v The hydroxyl groups are on different sides v The enzymes are stereo specific v An enzyme is a protein. In the structure, there might be a site that allows for a bonding of another substrate. When something like glucose comes along, new bonds get made. When we build new bonds, the confirmation of the enzyme changes, which opens up another side. ATP comes in & the confirmation changes again. Now the glucose & ATP are bonding together. ATP & glucose transfer & bond together which change the bond yet again. v If you have the wrong stereoisomers & the bond is on the wrong side, it won’t work PAGE 6 v Nucleic acids are ones we put together to form polypeptides. v As nucleotides, they can carry chemical energy & work as regulatory molecules. v When it becomes DNA, a long polymer chain is formed v E. Coli is 4.5 million base pairs v DNA is two polymers making a single helix Ø They go around together & bend together. When you take two & make the helix, you will create a gap on one side that is large & one is small, then rotating with a major group & then a minor group & it keeps repeating. The angles should be the same. The grooves are used as spatial orientation markers to obtain how we read the information in DNA PAGE 7 v tRNA & rRNA are very long lived v mRNA is very short lived v Half-life – how long it takes for the cell to break down to its half way point v What does the cell have to do with mRNA? Ø Give the instructions to make proteins v Why would the half-life be so short? Ø Re-use the material & adapt to the environmental conditions that are constantly changing 2 Cell Structure & Function PAGE 2 v Eukaryotes essentially means it has a good nucleus v Prokaryotes are essential bacteria Ø They each evolved uniquely of one another PAGE 3 v Its really the G+C that holds DNA together v Cytoplasmic streaming – the cytoplasm flowing in a spiral shape around the plant & up the stem v Cytoplasm is gel like, not fluid like v Ribosomes Ø S – unit of measurement § When taking apart a cell, we look at the small macromolecules • We take a centrifuge & fill it with sucrose. We lay all the cell remains on it & centrifuge the cell very well. § The measurement we are taking is how far things move • Based on molecular weight & size v Mitochondria essentially came from prokaryotes because it’s the one circular thing in the eukaryotes v A sugar & some peptides that make up the thick cell wall of the prokaryotes. It is a very tough molecule. The walls made of cellulose or chitin make up the walls of the eukaryotes. v Flagellum is spiral shaped & rigid. It spins like a propeller on a boat. Also, prokaryotes glide, but scientists haven’t figured out how they do this. v Two forms of bacteria Ø Gram positive § Surrounded by a thick cell wall Ø Gram negative § Surrounded by a thin cell wall & then an outer membrane v Christian Graham was a mortician that would discover different things about his patients Ø With a crystal violet dye, he could see certain cells through a microscope. 3 § He would come across when the specimens were accidentally doused with alcohol, the gram positive bacteria would retain the purple dye & gram negative bacteria would retain the pink dye PAGE 4 v Streptococcus is strep throat v Sarcinae – bunch of cells that are evolutionary related to one another v Coccus, tetrad, & sarcinae all tend to be gram positive v Staph infection has the random shape of staphylococci v If you say it’s a bacillus, you are saying it’s a member of the genius bacillus v Streptobacilli is called rods in chains PAGE 5 v Colera (disease), caused by the vibrio colea v Vibrio is nothing more than a partial spiral v The spring in a pen stretched out is a spirillum & condensed spring is spirochete v Spirillum are very fast & spirochete are very, very skinny v The flagella are inside the cell & folds back inside the cell with a gram negative architecture. The flagella are in between the cell wall & the outer sheath v The genetic material & control that will build the molecular material to make a square with 90 degree angles PAGE 6 v These proteins are hollow & one type of protein at one end & another at the other end v Fimbriae & pili are essentially the same thing v The protein help the cell adhere to things v There are proteins on our cell surfaces that help these attach & bind to one another v Extra chromosomal DNA called plasmids. Cells can loose and/or gain their plasmids. It encodes for a pillus & codes for a receptor. Opens small gap in the wall & attach & go do the same thing to another cell PAGE 7 v Defensive cells look for “not cells” & kill them off PAGE 8 v The yellow highlighted square is a peptoglycene bridge PAGE 9 v Proteins that span the membrane many times v Many proteins residing on the inside & outside of the membrane. v Proteins that are embedded in the membrane are free to move around. PAGE 11 v ABC transporters bind ATP 4 v Take a paper towel roll & imagine that being your cell wall. The cytoplasm inflator is a long balloon inflated & inserted into the paper towel roll. If the peptoglogycan (balloon) is breached, the membrane begins to bulge through the cell wall (paper towel roll). If the balloon pops, then this could be a cause of the cell wall being built incorrectly with the wrong isomers or amino acids v Using D & L amino acids, we can attack that wall from building that rigid wall, essentially making the cell die. Ø The drug penticylin lets the cell build majority of the cell & stops two connector chains from being able to cross-link. v The unique features of the prokaryotic cells allows use to have targets to control through formation & productions of the cell. 5
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